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Sluggish schizophrenia

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Katrine Elizabeth sackett
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date: may 2019

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• Sluggish schizophrenia – a diagnosis used in some Communist nations to justify the involuntary commitment of political dissidents to mental institutions.[233] ( its use as a means of confining dissenters in mental institutions instead of jails)
Psychiatric diagnoses such as the diagnosis of "sluggish schizophrenia" in political dissidents in the USSR were used for political purposes.[51] It was the diagnosis of "sluggish schizophrenia" that was most prominently used in cases of dissidents.[52]Sluggish schizophrenia as one of the new diagnostic categories was created to facilitate the stifling of dissidents and was a root of self-deception among psychiatrists to placate their consciences when the doctors acted as a tool of oppression in the name of a political system.[53] According to the Global Initiative on Psychiatry chief executive Robert van Voren, the political abuse of psychiatry in the USSR arose from the conception that people who opposed the Soviet regime were mentally sick since there was no other logical rationale why one would oppose the sociopolitical system considered the best in the world.[54] The diagnosis "sluggish schizophrenia," a longstanding concept further developed by the Moscow School of Psychiatry and particularly by its chief Snezhnevsky, furnished a very handy framework for explaining this behavior.[54]

The weight of scholarly opinion holds that the psychiatrists who played the primary role in the development of this diagnostic concept were following directives from the Communist Party and the Soviet secret service, or KGB, and were well aware of the political uses to which it would be put. Nevertheless, for many Soviet psychiatrists "sluggish schizophrenia" appeared to be a logical explanation to apply to the behavior of critics of the regime who, in their opposition, seemed willing to jeopardize their happiness, family, and career for a reformist conviction or ideal that was so apparently divergent from the prevailing social and political orthodoxy.[54]

nezhnevsky, the most prominent theorist of Soviet psychiatry and director of the Institute of Psychiatry of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, developed a novel classification of mental disorders postulating an original set of diagnostic criteria.[9] A carefully crafted description of sluggish schizophrenia established that psychotic symptoms were non-essential for the diagnosis,

but symptoms of psychopathy, hypochondria, depersonalization or anxiety were central to it.[9] Symptoms referred to as part of the "negative axis" included pessimism, poor social adaptation, and conflict with authorities, and were themselves sufficient for a formal diagnosis of "sluggish schizophrenia with scanty symptoms."[9] According to Snezhnevsky, patients with sluggish schizophrenia could present as quasi sane yet manifest minimal but clinically relevant personality changes which could remain unnoticed to the untrained eye.[9] Thereby patients with non-psychotic mental disorders, or even persons who were not mentally sick, could be easily labelled with the diagnosis of sluggish schizophrenia.[9] Along with paranoia, sluggish schizophrenia was the diagnosis most frequently used for the psychiatric incarceration of dissenters.[9] As per the theories of Snezhnevsky and his colleagues, schizophrenia was much more prevalent than previously considered since the illness could be presented with comparatively slight symptoms and only progress afterwards.[54] As a consequence, schizophrenia was diagnosed much more often in Moscow than in cities of other countries, as the World Health Organization Pilot Study on Schizophrenia reported in 1973.[54] The city with the highest prevalence of schizophrenia in the world was Moscow.[55] In particular, the scope was widened by sluggish schizophrenia because according to Snezhnevsky and his colleagues, patients with this diagnosis were capable of functioning almost normally in the social sense.[54] Their symptoms could be like those of a neurosis or could assume a paranoid character.[54] The patients with paranoid symptoms retained some insight into their condition but overestimated their own significance and could manifest grandiose ideas of reforming society.[54] Thereby, sluggish schizophrenia could have such symptoms as "reform delusions," "perseverance," and "struggle for the truth."[54] As Viktor Styazhkin reported, Snezhnevsky diagnosed a reformation delusion for every case when a patient "develops a new principle of human knowledge, drafts an academy of human happiness, and many other projects for the benefit of mankind."[56]
Sluggish schizophrenia or slow progressive schizophrenia (Russian: вялотеку́щая шизофрени́я, vyalotekushchaya shizofreniya)[1] was a diagnostic category used in the Soviet Union to describe what they claimed was a form of schizophrenia characterized by a slowly progressive course;

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it was diagnosed even in a patient who showed no symptoms of schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders, on the assumption that these symptoms would appear later.[2] It was developed in the 1960s by Soviet psychiatrist Andrei Snezhnevsky and his colleagues,[3][4] and was used exclusively in the USSR and several Eastern Bloc countries, until the fall of Communism starting in 1989.[5]The diagnosis has long been discredited because of its scientific inadequacy and its use as a means of confining dissenters.[6] It has never been used or recognized outside of Soviet Union,[7] or by international organizations such as the World Health Organization.[8] It is considered a prime example of the political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union.[9]
Sluggish schizophrenia was the most infamous of diagnoses used by Soviet psychiatrists, due to its usage against political dissidents.[10] After being discharged from a hospital, persons diagnosed with sluggish schizophrenia were deprived of their civic rights, credibility and employability.[11] The usage of this diagnosis has been internationally condemned.[12]
In the Russian version of the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10), which has long been used throughout present-day Russia, sluggish schizophrenia is no longer listed as a form of schizophrenia,[13] but it is still included as a schizotypal disorder in section F21 of chapter V.[14]
According to Sergei Jargin, the same Russian term "vyalotekushchaya" for sluggish schizophrenia continues to be used and is now translated in English summaries of articles not as "sluggish" but as "slow progressive".[1]
Political Hazards in the Diagnosis of ‘Sluggish Schizophrenia’
The concept of ‘sluggish schizophrenia’ is virtually limited to the USSR and some other East European countries, and may contribute to the mis-diagnosis of democrats as psychiatric patients. Recently, a number of articles have appeared in the Soviet literature relating the diagnosis of ‘sluggish schizophrenia’ or ‘slowly progressive schizophrenia’ to affective disorders, especially hypomania. Soviet publications on this theme from 1980 to 1984 are discussed, together with their relationship to questions on the abuse of psychiatry
Conditions posed as symptoms[edit]
A carefully crafted description of sluggish schizophrenia established that psychotic symptoms were non-essential for the diagnosis, but symptoms of psychopathy, hypochondria, depersonalization or anxiety were central to it.[15]Symptoms considered part of the "negative axis" included pessimism, poor social adaptation and conflict with authorities, and were themselves sufficient for a formal diagnosis of "sluggish schizophrenia with few symptoms".[15]According to Snezhnevsky, patients with sluggish schizophrenia could present as seemingly sane but manifest minimal (and clinically relevant) personality changes which could remain unnoticed by the untrained eye
(many more symptoms listed in article and in other varies articles/you must look them up yourself because not enough room on one paper to list them all some symptoms are good some seem bad) _______________________________________________________________________
Compulsory treatment in psychiatric hospitals of special type is to be recommended in cases of brutal murders committed on delusional grounds as well as in cases of persistent litigiousness and reformism with an inclination to induce surrounding persons and with a tendency to repetition of the illegal acts.
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Dementia praecox (a "premature dementia" or "precocious madness") is a disused psychiatric diagnosis that originally designated a chronic, deteriorating psychotic disorder characterized by rapid cognitive disintegration, usually beginning in the late teens or early adulthood. Over the years, the term "dementia praecox" was gradually replaced by "schizophrenia", which remains in current diagnostic use.

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The term "dementia praecox" was first used in 1891 by Arnold Pick (1851–1924), a professor of psychiatry at Charles University in Prague.[1] His brief clinical report described the case of a person with a psychotic disorder resembling hebephrenia. German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin (1856–1926) popularised it in his first detailed textbook descriptions of a condition that eventually became a different disease concept and relabeled as schizophrenia.[2] Kraepelin reduced the complex psychiatric taxonomies of the nineteenth century by dividing them into two classes: manic-depressive psychosis and dementia praecox. This division, commonly referred to as the Kraepelinian dichotomy, had a fundamental impact on twentieth-century psychiatry, though it has also been questioned.[3]
The primary disturbance in dementia praecox was seen to be a disruption in cognitive or mental functioning in attention, memory, and goal-directed behaviour. Kraepelin contrasted this with manic-depressive psychosis, now termed bipolar disorder, and also with other forms of mood disorder, including major depressive disorder. He eventually concluded that it was not possible to distinguish his categories on the basis of cross-sectional symptoms.[4]
from katrinesackett32463whitelady(5'3)(5'21/2)information look under google fastest way to find it wiki
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Leonid Plyushch, a Ukrainian mathematician and human rights activist, was one such prisoner who suffered from these treatments. In his autobiography and subsequent testimony before US Congress in 1982, Plyushch recounted the daily torture at these psychiatric prisons. “I was injected not only with triphtazine [an anti-psychotic], but also with large doses of haloperidol [another anti-psychotic] and for a while was not given the corrective for this drug, which was deliberate torture. After the injections I would have convulsions, was unable to speak, could only lie in bed, and lost interest in everything, even my own family.”[42] These medical tortures were also accompanied by physical brutality from hospital staff, which included overdosing patients with sulfur, beating them and preventing them from accessing the bathroom.[43] Plyushch recalled witnessing other political prisoners diagnosed with sluggish schizophrenia who, after refusing to recant their political ideals, were wrapped in wet canvas that shrank when it dried, causing excruciating pain and sometimes death.[44]

a person who:

dissents.synonyms: dissident, dissentient, objector, protester, disputant, rejectionist; More

Dissent is the sentiment of non-agreement with the majority, or the leader, of a group to which the "dissenter" is supposed to belong or to obey. It is the opposite of agreement, consensus and consent. ... In some nations, dissent is a crime, leading to suppression of dissent.

A dissenting opinion (or dissent) is an opinion in a legal case in certain legal systems written by one or more judges expressing disagreement with the majority opinion of the court which gives rise to its judgment. When not necessarily referring to a legal decision, this can also be referred to as a minority report.

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Dissent
An explicit disagreement by one or more judges with the decision of the majority on acase before them.
A dissent is often accompanied by a written dissenting opinion, and the terms dissentand dissenting opinion are used interchangeably.
Dissents have several functions. In some cases, they are a simple declaration ofdisagreement with the majority. In others, they instruct, prod, scold, or otherwise urgethe majority to consider the dissenter's point of view.
Dissents carry no precedential weight and are not relied on as authority insubsequent cases. However, attorneys and judges sometimes consult them tounderstand the dissenter's analysis of the majority opinion. Attorneys and judgesmay also cite a dissent if they agree with its reasoning and conclusion and seeksupport for a change in the law.
Although the majority opinion constitutes the judgment of the court, its legal weightcan be diminished if a sufficient number of judges dissent. On issues that divide thecourts and the country, there can be sharply divergent opinions on what the law is orshould be.
dissent
n. 1) the opinion of a judge of a court of appeals, including the U. S. Supreme Court,which disagrees with the majority opinion. Sometimes a dissent may eventuallyprevail as the law or society evolves. Prime examples include the many dissentingopinions of Oliver Wendell Holmes, Associate Justice of the U. S. Supreme Court(1902-1932) which were widely quoted and often formed the basis for later majoritydecisions. 2) stated disagreement with prevailing thought.

dissent
(Difference of opinion), noun apostasy, caviling, challenge, clash, confirmed opposition, conflict, conflict of opinion, contraposition, demur, disaccord, disagreement, discord, discordance, disharmony, disparity, dissensio, dissension, dissentience, dissidence, dissonance, divergence, diversity of opinion, expostulation, failure to agree, friction, lack of harmony, nonagreement, noncompliance, objection, oppositeness, opposition, schism, unconformity, variance

dissent
(Nonconcurrence), noun contrariety, disapproval, disavowal, disclaimer, discontent, dissatisfaction, dissension, dissentient voice, disunity, nonassent, nonconformity, nonconsent, objection, opposition, repudiation, variance
Associated concepts: dissenting opinion, dissenting vote
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dissent
(Differ in opinion), verb argue, be at variance, be contrary, be of contrary sentiment, bicker, clash, collide, conflict, confute, contradict, differ, differ in sentiment, disagree in opinion, dispute, dissentire, dissidere, not agree, oppose, quarrel, take exception, take issue with
Associated concepts: dissenting fiduciary, dissenting stockkolders

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dissent
(Withhold assent), verb be unwilling, challenge, decline, decline to agree, defy, demur, disallow, negate, negative, nonconsent, not accept, not approve, not consider, not defend, not hold with, object, oppose, prohibit, protest, raise objections, raise one's voice against, rebuff, refuse, refuse assent, refuse to admit, reject, repudiate, repulse, resist, spurn
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Associated concepts: dissent from the majority opinion
Compulsory treatment in psychiatric hospitals of special type is to be recommended in cases of brutal murders committed on delusional grounds as well as in cases of persistent litigiousness and reformism with an inclination to induce surrounding persons and with a tendency to repetition of the illegal acts.
Drapetomania was a conjectural mental illness that, in 1851, American physician Samuel A. Cartwright hypothesized as the cause of enslaved Africans fleeing captivity.[1]:41 It has since been debunked as pseudoscience[2]:2 and part of the edifice of scientific racism.[3]
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) [1] is listed in the DSM-5 under Disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorders and defined as "a pattern of angry/irritable mood, argumentative/defiant behavior, or vindictiveness" in children and adolescents.[2] Unlike children with conduct disorder (CD), children with oppositional defiant disorder are not aggressive towards people or animals, do not destroy property, and do not show a pattern of theft or deceit.[3
"redefine ODD by emphasizing a 'persistent pattern of angry and irritable mood along with vindictive behavior,' rather than DSM-IV's focus exclusively on 'negativistic, hostile, and defiant
behavior.' Although DSM-IV implied, but did not mention, irritability, DSM-5 now includes three symptom clusters, one of which is 'angry/irritable mood'—defined as 'loses temper, is touchy/easily annoyed by others, and is angry/resentful.' This suggests that the process of clinically relevant research driving nosology, and vice versa, has ensured that the future will bring greater understanding of ODD".[20]
1. Psychiatric diagnoses such as sluggish schizophrenia were used in the USSR for political purposes;[18] the diagnosis of sluggish schizophrenia was most frequently used for Soviet dissidents.[19] Sluggish schizophrenia as a diagnostic category was created to facilitate the stifling of dissidents and was a root of self-deception among psychiatrists to placate their consciences when the doctors acted as a tool of oppression in the name of a political system
2. Along with paranoia, sluggish schizophrenia was the diagnosis most frequently used for the psychiatric incarceration of dissenters

3. experts who visited Soviet psychiatric hospitals in 1989, testified that a "substantial number" of political dissenters had been recognized as mentally sick on the basis of such symptoms as "anti-Soviet thoughts" or "delusions of reformism".[33]
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Article 58 (RSFSR Penal Code)

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Article 58 of the Russian SFSR Penal Code was put in force on 25 February 1927 to arrest those suspected of counter-revolutionary activities. It was revised several times. In particular, its Article 58-1 was updated by the listed sub-articles and put in force on 8 June 1934.
This article introduced the formal notion of the enemy of workers: those subject to articles 58-2 — 58-13 (those under 58-1 were "traitors", 58-14 were "saboteurs").
Penal codes of other republics of the Soviet Union also had articles of similar nature.
Summary
Note: In this section, the phraseology of article 58 is given in quotes.
The article covered the following offenses.
• 58-1: Definition of counter-revolutionary activity:
A counter-revolutionary action is any action aimed at overthrowing, undermining or weakening of the power of workers' and peasants' Soviets... and governments of the USSR and Soviet and autonomous republics, or at the undermining or weakening of the
external security of the USSR and main economical, political and national achievements of the proletarial revolution
It was not limited to anti-Soviet acts: by "international solidarity of workers", any other "worker's state" was protected by this article.

o 58-1а. Treason: death sentence or 10 years of prison, both cases with property confiscation.
o 58-1б. Treason by military personnel: death sentence with property confiscation.
o 58-1в. In the case of flight of the offender in treason subject to 58-1б (military personnel only), his relatives were subject to 5–10 years of imprisonment with confiscation or 5 years of Siberia exile, depending on the circumstances: either they helped or knew and didn't report or simply lived with the offender.
o 58-1г. Non-reporting of a treason by a military man: 10 years of imprisonment. Non-reporting by others: offense by Article 58-12.
• 58-2. Armed uprising or intervention with the goal to seize the power: up to death with confiscation, including formal recognition as "enemy of workers".
• 58-3. Contacts with foreigners "with counter-revolutionary purposes" (as defined by 58-1) are subject to Article 58-2.
• 58-4. Any kind of help to "international bourgeoisie" which, not recognizing the equality of communist political system, strives to overthrow it: punishment similar to 58-2.
• 58-5. Urging any foreign entity to declaration of war, military intervention, blockade, capture of state property, breaking diplomatic relations, breaking international treaties, and other aggressive actions against USSR: similar to 58-2.
• 58-6. Espionage. Punishment: similar to 58-2.

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• 58-7. Undermining of state industry, transport, monetary circulation or credit system, as well as of cooperative societies and organizations, with counter-revolutionary purpose (as defined by 58-1) by means of the corresponding usage of the state institutions, as well as by opposing their normal functioning: same as 58-2. Note: the offense according to this article was known as wrecking and the offenders were called "wreckers".
• 58-8. Terrorist acts against representatives of Soviet power or of workers and peasants organisations: same as 58-2.
• 58-9. Damage of transport, communication, water supply, warehouses and other buildings or state and communal property with counter-revolutionary purpose: same as 58-2.
• 58-10. Anti-Soviet and counter-revolutionary propaganda and agitation: at least 6 months of imprisonment. In the conditions of unrest or war: same as 58.2.
• 58-11. Any kind of organisational or support actions related to the preparation or execution of the above crimes is equated to the corresponding offenses and prosecuted by the corresponding articles.
• 58-12. Non-reporting of a "counter-revolutionary activity": at least 6 months of imprisonment.
• 58-13. Active struggle against revolutionary movement of tsarist personnel and members of "counter-revolutionary governments" during the civil war, same as 58-2.

• 58-14 (added on June 6, 1937) "Counter-revolutionary sabotage", i.e., conscious non-execution or deliberately careless execution of "defined duties", aimed at the weakening of the power of the government and of the functioning of the state apparatus is subject to at least one year of freedom deprivation, and under especially aggravating circumstances, up to the highest measure of social protection: execution by shooting with confiscation of property.
Application
The article was used for the imprisonment and execution of many prominent people, as well as multitudes of nonnotable innocents.
Sentences were long, up to 25 years, and frequently extended indefinitely without trial or consultation. Inmates under Article 58 were known as "politichesky" (полити́ческий, short for полити́ческий заключённый, "politи́chesky zakliuchenny" or "political prisoner"), as opposed to common criminals, "ugolovnik" (уголо́вник). Upon release, the prisoner would typically be sent into an exile within Russia without the right to settle within 100 km of large cities.
Section 10 of Article 58 made "propaganda and agitation against the Soviet Union" a triable offence, whilst section 12 allowed for onlookers to be prosecuted for not reporting instances of section 10. In effect, Article 58 was carte blanche for the secret police to arrest and imprison anyone deemed suspicious, making for its use as a political weapon. A person could be framed: the latter would arrange an "anti-Soviet" incident in the person's presence and then try the person for it. If the person pleaded innocence, not having reported the incident would also make them liable to imprisonment.
During and after World War II, Article 58 was used to imprison some of the returned Soviet prisoners of war on the grounds that their capture and detainment by the Axis Powers during the war was proof that they did not fight to the death and were therefore anti-Soviet.
Article 58 was applied outside the USSR as well. In the Soviet occupation zone of Germany people were in terned as "spies" for suspected opposition to the Stalinist regime, e.g. for contacts with

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organizations based in the Western occupation zones, on the basis of Article 58 of the Soviet penal code.[1] In the NKVD special camp in Bautzen, 66% of the inmates fell into this category.[1]
Evolution
After the denunciation of Stalinism by Nikita Khrushchev the code was significantly rewritten.
Application of the article
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn in his non-fiction book The Gulag Archipelago characterized the enormous scope of the article in this way:
One can find more epithets in praise of this article than Turgenev once assembled to praise the Russian language, or Nekrasov to praise Mother Russia: great, powerful, abundant, highly ramified, multiform, wide sweeping 58, which summed up the world not so much through the exact terms of its sections as in their extended dialectical interpretation.
Who among us has not experienced its all-encompassing embrace? In all truth, there is no step, thought, action, or lack of action under the heavens which could not be punished by the heavy hand of Article 58.[2]
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EXTRA INFORMATION-------------------------------------------------------------------------page 1 of 2

the most prominent symptoms among patients with sluggish schizophrenia were affect laden thoughts, incongruity of affect, flatness, and neurasthenic complaints, with depressed or elated mood. Over four fifths of these patients were rated as having thought blocking, more than three fifths as showing lack of insight, and more than half as having stereotypes of speech

For comparison among the field research centres sluggish schizophrenia was assigned to the category of latent schizophrenia in the International Classification of Diseases.

a condition of eccentric or inconsequent behaviour and anomalies of affect which give the impression of schizophrenia though no definite VOLUME 293 NO 6548 PAGE 641 642 BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL VOLUME 293 13 SEPTEMBER 1986 and characteristic schizophrenic anomalies, present or past, have been manifest. The terms indicate that this is the best place to classify some other poorly defined varieties of schizophrenia."" Although some Soviet psychiatrists manifestly resist what they find to be abuses of their profession,"3 9

suggest that the misuse of psychiatry there is deep rooted and long established; because of the cultural, political, legal, and social conditions in that country; because of the lack of knowledge about Soviet medical22 23 and psychiatric practices,2"' especially those regarding compulsory confinement in "special" as well as "ordinary" psychiatric hospitals2 23; and, particularly, because of the close relationship between psychiatry and the state in the Soviet Union. Secondly, the use ofdiagnoses such as sluggish schizophrenia exposes fundamental deficiencies in the reliable and valid definition and classification of psychiatric disorders. This is underlined by the fact that in 1983 the World Psychiatric Association published no fewer than 15 different diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia, including that used in the Soviet Union. Overall, the reliability, concordance, and prediction of outcome of such criteria are unsatisfactory, though a few "emerge as relativelyeffective.""' Doctors and medical science can make remedial interventions in both these domains; firstly, by continuing to encourage international professional inquiry and enlightenment; and, secondly, by promoting the collaborative research that is still required.3' 32 GREG WILKINSON Honorary Lecturer, Genera Practice Research Unit, Institute of Psychiatry, London SE5 8AF

A carefully crafted description of sluggish schizophrenia established that psychotic symptoms were non-essential for the diagnosis, but symptoms of psychopathy, hypochondria, depersonalization or anxiety were central to it. Symptoms considered part of the "negative axis" included pessimism, poor social adaptation and conflict with authorities, and were themselves sufficient for a formal diagnosis of "sluggish schizophrenia with few symptoms". According to Snezhnevsky, patients with sluggish schizophrenia could present as seemingly sane but manifest minimal (and clinically relevant) personality changes which could remain unnoticed by the untrained eye

diagnostics of sluggish (neurosis-like, psychopathy-like) schizophrenia

dogmatism

theories which contained ideas about reforming society, struggling for the truth, and religious convictions were not considered delusional paranoid disorders in nearly any foreign classifications; however, Soviet psychiatry (for ideological reasons) considered critiques of the political system and proposals to reform it as delusional behavior

An audience member at a lecture by Georgi Morozov on forensic psychiatry in the Serbsky Institute asked, “Tell us, Georgi Vasilevich, what is actually the diagnosis of sluggish schizophrenia?”[45] Since the question was asked ironically Morozov replied ironically: “You know, dear colleagues, this is a very peculiar disease. There are not delusional disorders, there are not hallucinations, but there is schizophrenia!”[45]

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note that Smulevich's clinical description of sluggish schizophrenia is extremely elusive and includes almost all possible changes in mental status and conditions that occur in a person without psychopathology: euphoria, hyperactivity, unfounded optimism, irritability, explosiveness, sensitivity, inadequacy and emotional deficit, hysterical reactions with conversive and dissociative symptoms, infantilism, obsessive-phobic states and stubbornness.[55] At present, the hyperdiagnosis of schizophrenia becomes especially negative due to a large number of schizophreniform psychoses caused by the increasing popularity of various esoteric sects. They practice meditation, sensory deprivation, special exercises with rhythmic movements which directly stimulate the deep subconscious and, by doing so, lead to the development of psychoses with mainly reversible course

delusion of reformism
For a long while, the categories were Catatonic, Hebephrenic, Paranoid, and Simple. Nowadays schizophrenics are sorted into five types: Catatonic, disorganised, paranoid, residual, and undifferentiated
Pessimismis a negative or depressed mental attitude in which an undesirable outcome is anticipated from a given situation. Pessimists tend to focus on the negatives of life in general. A common question asked to test for pessimism is "Is the glass half empty or half full?"; in this situation a pessimist is said to see the glass as half empty, while an optimist is said to see the glass as half full
but could also mean 'senseless' and 'absurd
Philosophical pessimists see the self-consciousness of man as bound up with his consciousness of time and that this leads to greater suffering than mere physical pain
Absurdity is seen as an ontological mismatch between our desire for meaning and fulfillment and our inability to find or sustain those things in the world
In the ancient world, psychological pessimism was associated with melancholy, and was believed to be caused by an excess of black bile in the body. The study of pessimism has parallels with the study of depression. Psychologists trace pessimistic attitudes to emotional pain or even biology
The Protest Psychosis: How Schizophrenia Became a Black Disease is a 2010 book by the psychiatrist Jonathan Metzl (who also has a Ph.D. in American studies), and published by Beacon Press,[1] covering the history of the 1960s Ionia State Hospital—located in Ionia, Michigan and converted into the Ionia Correctional Facility in 1986. The facility is claimed to have been one of America's largest and most notorious state psychiatric hospitals in the era before deinstitutionalization.
Metzl focuses on exposing the trend of this hospital to diagnose African Americans with schizophrenia because of their civil rights ideas. He suggests that in part the sudden influx of such diagnoses could be traced to a change in wording in the DSM-II, which compared to the previous edition added "hostility" and "aggression" as signs of the disorder. Metzl writes that this change resulted in structural racism.
A 1974 ad for the drug Haldol published in the medical journal Archives of General Psychiatry, and reproduced in The Protest Psychosis. Author Metzl states that the advertisement shows an attempt to equate racial unrest with mental illness.

Extra information --------------------------------------------------------------------------
Psychopathy is traditionally a personality disorder characterized by persistent antisocial behavior, impaired empathy and remorse, and bold, disinhibited, and egotistical traits.[1] It is sometimes considered synonymous with sociopathy. Different conceptions of psychopathy have been used throughout history that are only partly overlapping and may sometimes be contradictory.[2]
Hervey M. Cleckley, an American psychiatrist, influenced the initial diagnostic criteria for antisocial personality reaction/disturbance in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), as did American psychologist George E. Partridge.[3] The DSM and International Classification of Diseases (ICD) subsequently introduced the diagnoses of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and dissocial personality disorder (DPD) respectively, stating that these diagnoses have been referred to (or include what is referred to) as psychopathy or sociopathy. The creation of ASPD and DPD was driven by the fact that many of the classic traits of psychopathy were impossible to measure objectively.[2][4][5][6][7] Canadian psychologist Robert D. Hare later repopularized the construct of psychopathy in criminology with his Psychopathy Checklist.[2][5][8][9]
Although no psychiatric or psychological organization has sanctioned a diagnosis titled "psychopathy", assessments of psychopathic characteristics are widely used in criminal justice settings in some nations and may have important consequences for individuals. The study of psychopathy is an active field of research, and the term is also used by the general public, popular press, and in fictional portrayals.[9][10] While the term is often employed in common usage along with "crazy", "insane", and "mentally ill", there is a distinction between psychosis and psychopathy.[11

Antisocial personality disorder is a personality disorder characterized by a long term pattern of disregard for, or violation of, the rights of others. A low moral sense or conscience is often apparent, as well as a history of crime, legal problems, or impulsive and aggressive behavior.
Those with antisocial personality disorder are often impulsive and reckless, failing to consider or disregarding the consequences of their actions. They may repeatedly disregard and jeopardize their own safety and the safety of others and place themselves and others in danger.[3][4][14] They are often aggressive and hostile and display a disregulated temper and can lash out violently with provocation or frustration.[

lack of concern for one's limitations and denial of the reality of personal danger.

Gross and persistent attitude of irresponsibility and disregard for social norms, rules, and obligations

Disinhibition (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) page 1 of 2

In psychology, disinhibition is a lack of restraint manifested in disregard of social conventions, impulsivity, and poor risk assessment. Disinhibition affects motor, instinctual, emotional, cognitive, and perceptual aspects with signs and symptoms similar to the diagnostic criteria for mania. Hypersexuality, hyperphagia, and aggressive outbursts are indicative of disinhibited instinctual drives.[1]
Clinical concept[edit]
According to Grafman et al.[1] "disinhibition" is a lack of restraint manifested in several ways, affecting motor, instinctual, emotional, cognitive, and perceptual aspects with signs and symptoms e.g. impulsivity, disregard for others and social norms, aggressive outbursts, misconduct and oppositional behaviors, disinhibited instinctual drives including risk taking behaviors and hypersexuality. Disinhibition is a common symptom following brain injury, or lesions, particularly to the frontal lobe and primarily to the orbitofrontal cortex.[2] The neuropsychiatric sequelae following brain injuries could include diffuse cognitive impairment, with more prominent deficits in the rate of information processing, attention, memory, cognitive flexibility, and problem solving. Prominent impulsivity, affective instability, and disinhibition are seen frequently, secondary to injury to frontal, temporal, and limbic areas. In association with the typical cognitive deficits, these sequelae characterize the frequently noted "personality changes" in TBI (Traumatic Brain Injury) patients. Disinhibition syndromes, in brain injuries and insults including brain tumors, strokes and epilepsy range from mildly inappropriate social behavior, lack of control over one's behaviour to the full-blown mania, depending on the lesions to specific brain regions. Several studies in brain traumas and insults have demonstrated significant associations between disinhibition syndromes and dysfunction of orbitofrontal and basotemporal cortices, affecting visuospatial functions, somatosensation, and spatial memory, motoric, instinctive, affective, and intellectual behaviors.[2]
Sulfozinum (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

Sulfozinum (sulfozin) is a pharmaceutical drug that causes a pyrogenic reaction (body temperature elevation)[1][2] and severe pain.[3] Sulfozinum is a 0.37 - 2% sterilized solution of purified elemental sulfur in peach oil or olive oil for intramuscular injections. The preparation is unstable, so it was prepared only in local hospital pharmacies. In the Soviet Union, it was used in the pyrogenic treatment of syphilitic encephalitis (mostly in the pre-antibiotics era), various psychiatric conditions,[4][5] and alcoholism.[6] Sulfozin was not used in American psychiatry.[3]
The American delegation during its visit to the USSR in 1989 confirmed charges of the use of sulfozine injections.[7] Psychiatrists in the USSR employed sulfozine treatment allegedly to increase treatment response to neuroleptic administration but were unable to present any research evidence of its efficiency for this purpose.[8] The muscle necrosis, fever, immobility, and severe pain caused by sulfozine, as well as the pattern of its use in 10 persons, suggest that the medication was applied for punitive rather than therapeutic purposes.[8]
Real benefits of its use in psychiatry are disputable, but it was widely used due to its extremely painful action, lasting from several hours to 2–3 days, as a punishment for psychiatric patients and in political abuse of psychiatry.[9] Sulfazine symbolised Soviet punitive psychiatry.[10]
In 1989, during Perestroika, its use was restricted only to cases when its prescription was confirmed both by consilium[clarification needed] and by informed consent of the patient or his representatives.[11] Its present use is not known.
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In post-Soviet Russia[edit]
Some psychiatrists in post-Soviet Russia call the criticism of sulfozin attacks on psychiatry and still believe that sulfozin was sometimes the only effective treatment when all other ones were ineffective in calming down violent patients.[12] The psychiatrists say that sulfozin really brought a psychosis to remission.[12]
References[edit1. ^ Malkina, MG; Martynov, LA (1958). "Stimulation of pyrogenic effect of sulfozine". Farmakologiia i toksikologiia. 21 (3): 47–9. PMID 13562185.
2. ^ Zaltsman GI, Lunskii GP (1961). "Effect of aminazin on hyperthermia produced with sulfozin". Izvestiia. Seriia fiziologii i meditsiny Qazaq SSR Ghylym Akademiiasy. 2 (2): 96–100. PMID 24547024.
Dysthymia
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For the genus of moth, see Dysthymia (moth).
Persistent Depressive Disorder
Other names Neurotic depression,[1] dysthymic disorder, chronic depression,[2] persistent depressive disorder
Pronunciation • /dɪsˈθaɪmiə/ dis-THY-mee-ə
Specialty
Psychiatry
Symptoms Low mood, low self-esteem, loss of interest in normally enjoyable activities, low energy, pain without a clear cause[3]from katrineelizabethsackett32463whitelady(5'3)(5'21/2)
information found under google and wiki may 2019

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