hypoesthia hypesthesia term
Hypoesthesia is a medical condition characterized by partial or total reduction of the sensitivity in its various forms (tactile, thermal or pain). Usually the cause is to be found in the presence of lesions that affect the nervous system (both central and peripheral).The hypoesthesia causes the peripheral nerve to manifests itself in lesions of one or more peripheral nerves (neuropathy) and sensory ganglia. The hypoesthesia can manifest itself in the nervous system in case of diseases that affect the spine and the spinal cord, and in the case of some lesions of the thalamus.The hypoesthesia may also be caused by the effect of anesthetic drugs.

What kind of diseases can be associated with hypoesthesia?
The following diseases may be associated with hypoesthesia:
Leprosy Multiple sclerosis Burns

Remember that this is not an exhaustive list and it is highly recommended to consult your doctor, in case of symptom’s persistence.
What is the therapy for hypoesthesia?
To enable the development of a targeted treatment of hypoesthesia, it is important to understand the underlying cause of the disorder and to act on it.
When is most likely to contact your doctor in case of hypoesthesia?
This condition can be a symptom of major diseases, so in case of the occurrence of numbness, a doctor should be consulted.

Hyperesthesia – what is it and what can we do about it?
Updated:January 28, 2018 by Erin Brunek, RD
Hyperesthesia is considered a type of neuropathic pain and is, therefore, caused by a disorder of the nervous system.
It can be a bewildering and distressing condition, for there are many variations and it also has multiple possible causes. Determining the cause of this disorder is rarely straightforward.
What is Hyperesthesia?
Hyperesthesia (or hyperaesthesia) is an abnormal sensitivity to stimuli, and it can affect any of the senses.
This condition is thus classified by the sense affected, so tactile hyperesthesia, for example, describes a condition in which the sense of touch is abnormally sensitive.
The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) describes it as one of over 100 peripheral neuropathies.(1)
Such disorders affect the peripheral nervous system and interrupt or distort signals between the brain and the rest of the body.
The International Association for the Study of Pain defines allodynia and hyperalgesia as types of hyperesthesia. (2)
Tactile hyperesthesia can affect cats as well as humans.
According to Sana Saleem, who wrote for “Clinical Medicine,” this disorder has multiple causes.(4) It can also be temporary or chronic. Excessive consumption of caffeine and/or unusual sensitivity to caffeine can cause temporary hyperesthesia.
The caffeine stimulates the spinal cord and other parts of the central nervous system to an abnormal degree. In this case, the symptoms stop after about three to five hours.
In many cases, though, this condition is a symptom of another disorder.
Peripheral neuropathy caused by diabetes or injury may also result in tactile hyperaesthesia. Excessive and regular consumption of alcohol can temporarily induce tactile hyperaesthesia by stimulating the nervous system.
In children, this condition often accompanies attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism and some forms of mental retardation.
According to The Hyperacusis Network, auditory hyperesthesia can be caused by injuries to the head or ear, prolonged exposure to loud noises, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) syndrome, Meniere’s disease, Lyme disease or Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome (SCDS).(6)
Dr. Daniel Cameron, an authority on Lyme disease, wrote that Lyme disease often causes hyperosmia.(7)
One study indicated that about 50 percent of patients with Lyme disease develop a heightened sense of smell. Far from a being a super power, hyperosmia can cause the patient discomfort and even make them sick.
Common symptoms include restlessness, confusion, disorientation, difficulty sleeping, dizziness, headache and nausea.
The symptoms do vary, as there are several different types of hyperesthesia. As already mentioned, tactile hyperesthesia is an abnormally acute sense of touch.
Other types of hyperesthesia include the following:(1)
» Hypergeusia or abnormally sensitive taste
» Hyperosmia or olfactory hyperesthesia, which is an abnormally strong sense of smell
» Hyperacusis or auditory/acoustic hyperesthesia, which is abnormally acute hearing
» Optic hyperesthesia, in which the eyes are abnormally sensitive to light
This condition can also affect the muscles and make them extremely sensitive to fatigue or pain.
The first step in treating this disorder is determining the cause, because it is often a symptom of another condition.
Treating that condition will help bring the hyperesthesia under control.
The patient should also have the hyperesthesia itself evaluated.
For example, the Hyperacusis Network recommends having a patient’s Loudness Discomfort Level established by a doctor who specializes in hearing problems.(8)
An LDL is a test that determines what level of sound causes a patient discomfort. A normal person has an LDL of 85 to roughly 90 decibels, which means they can tolerate noises as loud as a motorcycle 25 feet away from them.
A patient with auditory hyperesthesia will have a significantly lower LDL.
The doctor may recommend various therapies to help the patient develop a normal tolerance for stimuli. For example, they may have a patient with auditory hyperesthesia wear headphones or hearing aids that emit “pink noise” or sounds that match the spectrum of noise heard throughout the typical day.
The patient will typically have to wear the device for at least two hours a day for roughly six months.
Hyperesthesia describes a multitude of conditions that are all characterized by abnormally heightened sensitivity to stimuli which can cause the patient pain or distress.
(12) https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct/show/NCT00203268

[ˌhipəsˈTHēZHə, ˌhīpəs-]
hypaesthesia (noun)
1. a diminished capacity for physical sensation, especially of the skin.
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Hypoesthesia - Wikipedia
Hypoesthesia is a common side effect of various medical conditions which manifests as a reduced sense of touch or sensation, or a partial loss of sensitivity to sensory stimuli.In everyday speech this is generally referred to as numbness. Hypoesthesia primarily results from damage to nerves, and from blockages in blood vessels, resulting in ischemic damage to tissues supplied by the blocked ...
2. Hypesthesia | definition of hypesthesia by Medical dictionary
hypesthesia Partial or total loss of the sense of touch. hypesthesia Diminished sensitivity to tactile stimuli hyp·es·the·si·a (hīp'es-thē'zē-ă)
3. Hyperesthesia: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment
Jan 29, 2018 · Hyperesthesia is an increase in the sensitivity of any of your senses, such as sight, sound, touch, and smell. It can affect just one or all of the senses.
o Dysesthesia: Symptoms, Treatments, and Defi…Parethesia: Causes, Treatment, and More
4. Hypesthesia Medical Definition | Merriam-Webster Medical ...
Medical definition of hypesthesia: impaired or decreased tactile sensibility. Time Traveler: Explore other words from the year hypesthesia first appeared Time Traveler! Explore the year a word first appeared
5. Hypoesthesia | definition of hypoesthesia by Medical ...
hypoesthesia: [ hi″po-es-the´zhah ] abnormally decreased sensitivity to stimuli, particularly to touch . Called also hypesthesia . adj., adj hypoesthet´ic. Numb chin syndrome (NCS) is characterized by hypoesthesia, paresthesia, thermalgesic anesthesia, or pain over the chin in the region supplied by the mental nerve, a terminal branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve.
6. Hypoesthesia - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics
Dec 05, 1988 · J.P. Mohr, Jeffrey R. Binder, in Stroke (Fifth Edition), 2011. Sensory Syndromes. Hypesthesia or anesthesia is explained by supply to the ventral tier nuclei of the thalamus in the territory of its penetrating branches. 43 Individual reports describing hypesthesia, and even “considerable anesthesia,” include one from the pre-20th century literature with a large, autopsy-documented ...
HyperesthesiaFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hyperesthesia is a condition that involves an abnormal increase in sensitivity to stimuli of the sense. "When a non-noxious stimulus causes the sensation of pain the area will be termed hyperaesthetic".[1] Stimuli of the senses can include sound that one hears, foods that one tastes, textures that one feels, and so forth
7. Hypesthesia | Definition of Hypesthesia at Dictionary.com
Hypesthesia definition, an abnormally weak sense of pain, heat, cold, or touch. See more.
8. Related searches for hypesthesiadifference between hypoesthesia and paresthesiacauses of hypoesthesiainfraorbital hypesthesiahyperesthesia definitionhypesthesia definitionfacial hypesthesiahyperesthesia syndrome in humanshypesthesia numbnessPhantosmia
9. Hypesthesia | Definition of Hypesthesia at Dictionary.com
Hypesthesia definition, an abnormally weak sense of pain, heat, cold, or touch. See more.
10. Related searches for hypesthesia
o difference between hypoesthesia and paresthesia
o causes of hypoesthesiainfraorbital hypesthesiahyperesthesia definition
o hypesthesia definitionfacial hypesthesiahyperesthesia syndrome in humanshypesthesia numbness

Other names Hypesthesia

Is hypoesthesia the same as paraesthesia? Conceptual clarifications
It is important not to confuse hypoesthesia with Paresthesia . The latter refers to an abnormal sensation of tingling or numbness in some part of the body. It does not have to be unpleasant.
On the other hand, it is useful to clarify that hypoesthesia is different from Dysesthesia . This is an unpleasant sensation, which can be painful or uncomfortable. It manifests as tingling, burning, punctures, cramps... that annoy the patient.
As for the term hypoalgesia, this refers exclusively to a decrease in the ability to feel pain. Hypoesthesia encompasses hypoalgesia, and includes, in addition, the lack of sensitivity to temperature and skin contact in general.
While anesthesia, it would be an extreme hypoesthesia. That is, a total loss of sensitivity of a certain area of the body.
The opposite of hypoesthesia would be hyperesthesia, which consists of an increase in the sensitivity of the skin. You may feel more pain (hyperalgesia), temperature, or any other skin sensation.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hyperesthesia is a condition that involves an abnormal increase in sensitivity to stimuli of the sense. "When a non-noxious stimulus causes the sensation of pain the area will be termed hyperaesthetic".[1] Stimuli of the senses can include sound that one hears, foods that one tastes, textures that one feels, and so forth. Increased touch sensitivity is referred to as "tactile hyperesthesia", and increased sound sensitivity is called "auditory hyperesthesia". Tactile hyperesthesia may be a common symptom of many neurologic disorders such as herpes zoster, peripheral neuropathy and radiculopathies. In 1979, and then in 1994, Merskey, Bogduk, Noordenbos, Devor and others (a subcommittee of International Association for the Study of Pain) proposed, instead of hyperaesthesia, the concept of allodynia, meaning "other pain", defined as a pain resulting from a stimulus that does not normally provoke pain.[2]
In psychology, Jeanne Siaud-Facchin uses the term by defining it as an "exacerbation des sens"[3]:37 that characterizes gifted children (and adults): for them, the sensory information reaches the brain much faster than the average, and the information is processed in a significantly shorter time.

Other names Hypesthesia

Hypoesthesia is a common side effect of various medical conditions which manifests as a reduced sense of touch or sensation, or a partial loss of sensitivity to sensory stimuli. In everyday speech this is generally referred to as numbness.[1]
Hypoesthesia primarily results from damage to nerves, and from blockages in blood vessels, resulting in ischemic damage to tissues supplied by the blocked blood vessels. This damage is detectable through the use of various imaging studies. Damage in this way is caused by a variety of different illnesses and diseases
Neuropathic pain
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Neuropathic pain

Neuropathic pain is pain caused by damage or disease affecting the somatosensory nervous system.[1] Neuropathic pain may be associated with abnormal sensations called dysesthesia or pain from normally non-painful stimuli (allodynia). It may have continuous and/or episodic (paroxysmal) components. The latter resemble stabbings or electric shocks. Common qualities include burning or coldness, "pins and needles" sensations, numbness and itching.
Up to 7%-8% of the European population is affected, and in 5% of persons it may be severe.[2][3] Neuropathic pain may result from disorders of the peripheral nervous system or the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Thus, neuropathic pain may be divided into peripheral neuropathic pain, central neuropathic pain, or mixed (peripheral and central) neuropathic pain.

Central neuropathic pain is found in spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis,[4] and some strokes. Aside from diabetes (see diabetic neuropathy) and other metabolic conditions, the common causes of painful peripheral neuropathies are herpes zoster infection, HIV-related neuropathies, nutritional deficiencies, toxins, remote manifestations of malignancies, immune mediated disorders and physical trauma to a nerve trunk.[5][6] Neuropathic pain is common in cancer as a direct result of cancer on peripheral nerves (e.g., compression by a tumor), or as a side effect of chemotherapy (chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy),[7][8] radiation injury or surgery.
After a peripheral nerve lesion, aberrant regeneration may occur. Neurons become unusually sensitive and develop spontaneously pathological activity and abnormal excitability. This phenomenon is called "peripheral sensitization".
The (spinal cord) dorsal horn neurons give rise to the spinothalamic tract (STT), which constitutes the major ascending nociceptive pathway. As a consequence of spontaneous activity arising in the periphery, STT neurons develop increased background activity, enlarged receptive fields and increased responses to afferent impulses, including normally innocuous tactile stimuli. This phenomenon is called central sensitization. Central sensitization is an important mechanism of persistent neuropathic pain.
Other mechanisms may take place at the central level after peripheral nerve damage. The loss of afferent signals induces functional changes in dorsal horn neurons. A decrease in the large fiber input decreases the activity of interneurons inhibiting nociceptive neurons i.e. loss of afferent inhibition. Hypoactivity of the descending antinociceptive systems or loss of descending inhibition may be another factor. With the loss of neuronal input (deafferentation) the STT neurons begin to fire spontaneously, a phenomenon designated "deafferentation hypersensitivity."
Neuroglia ("glial cells") may play a role in central sensitization. Peripheral nerve injury induces glia to release proinflammatory cytokines and glutamate—which, in turn influence neurons.[9]
The phenomena described above are dependent on changes at the cellular and molecular levels. Altered expression of ion channels, changes in neurotransmitters and their receptors as well as altered gene expression in response to neural input are at play.[10] Neuropathic pain is associated with changes in sodium and calcium channel subunit expression resulting in functional changes. In chronic nerve injury, there is redistribution and alteration of subunit compositions of sodium and calcium channels resulting in spontaneous firing at ectopic sites along the sensory pathway.[6]
Opioids, while commonly used in chronic neuropathic pain, are not recommended a first or second line treatment.[41] In the short and long term they are of unclear benefit.[42] In the intermediate term evidence of low quality supports utility
It is unclear if fentanyl gives pain relief to people with neuropathic pain
Other topical agents such as amitriptyline, gabapentin, Citrullus colocynthis extract, nifedipine, and pentoxifylline are also under investigation
an impaired condition of any of the senses.
noundys·es·the·siavariants: or chiefly British dysaesthesia \ ˌdis-es-ˈthē-zh(ē-)ə \
Medical Definition of dysesthesia
: impairment of sensitivity especially to touch
Other Words from dysesthesiadysesthetic or chiefly British dysaesthetic \ -ˈthet-ik \ adjective

Functional Neurologic Disorders J. Stone, M. Vermeulen, in Handbook of Clinical Neurology, 2016
Patients are often not aware of their hypoesthesia. It is not unusual for them to notice this sensory impairment
Sensory and motor changes
Facial hypoaesthesia or anaesthesia result in the loss of protective reflexes and a trigeminal trophic syndrome with facial ulceration can follow. If the cornea is anaesthetic or hypoaesthetic, an eye pad must be worn over the closed eyelids, since the protective corneal reflex is lost and the cornea may be damaged. If there has been neurotmesis, early surgical correction can achieve good results. In benign, potentially reversible causes of sensory loss, the underlying cause should be corrected, and the patient reassured that there should be some if not full return of sensation over the subsequent 18 months reveal nociceptive fibre dysfunction (, nerve conduction)

Spinal Cord Compression Daniel M. Sciubba, ... Ziya L. Gokaslan, in Abeloff's Clinical Oncology (Fifth Edition), 2014
Sensory Dysfunction
Sensory disturbances such as anesthesia, hypesthesia, and/or paresthesia typically occur in correlation with motor dysfunction both in location and time of onset. In this way, patients with myelopathy may elicit a sensory level across the chest or abdomen, whereas patients with radicular pain or weakness may report sensory abnormalities in the same dermatomal distribution as their motor dysfunction. Notably, patients with MESCC of the thoracic cord may describe symptoms only of discomfort around the chest, described as if they were being restricted by a “tight shirt” or “corset,” similar to the symptoms of patients with thoracic transverse myelitis.

Most common is disturbance of pain sensation and in decreasing frequency it is the sensation of touch and temperature which is impaired
Orofacial Pain Samer Narouze MD, PhD, Jason E. Pope MD, in Essentials of Pain Medicine (Fourth Edition), 2018
Anesthesia Dolorosa
Anesthesia dolorosa is a painful anesthesia or hypesthesia in the distribution of the trigeminal, one of its divisions, or occipital nerve. It is caused by a lesion of the relevant nerve or its central connections and is characterized as persistent pain with diminished sensory loss in the distribution of the nerve. It is often related to surgical trauma via rhizotomy or thermocoagulation of the occipital nerve or the trigeminal ganglion. Anesthesia dolorosa was reported in up to 1.6% and 3% of cases after glycerol rhizotomy and radiofrequency rhizotomy, respectively, in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia.22,46,47
commonly described as “burning,” “throbbing,” and often “stabbing burning pain,
, a neuropathic pain sympathetic nervous system

1. Paresthesia definition medical
Answer from 5 sources
medical Definition of paresthesia. : a sensation of pricking, tingling, or creeping on the skin having no objective cause and usually associated with injury or irritation of a sensory nerve or nerve root.
Paresthesia | Definition of Paresthesia by Merriam-Webster
Medical Definition of Paresthesia. Paresthesia: An abnormal sensation of the body, such as numbness, tingling, or burning.
Medical Definition of Paresthesia - MedicineNet

glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia

delusional parasites

latent inhibition

dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia

successive irritation of nerve fibrils in the skin. At times patients who suffer from it will scarcely be persuaded that it is not due to insects.

These symptoms usually arise from nerve damage (neuropathy). Continued nerve damage can lead to numbness (lost of sensation) or paralysis (loss of movement and sensation). Paresthesia is one of the symptoms of Hypervitaminosis-D. ... Peripheral neuropathy is a general term indicating disturbances in the peripheral nerves.

Numbness (paresthesia and neuropathy) (MPKB)https://mpkb.org/home/symptoms/neurological/paresthesia

What is paresthesia and what causes it?
Chronic paresthesia is often a symptom of an underlying neurological disease or traumatic nerve damage. Paresthesia can be caused by disorders affecting the central nervous system, such as stroke and transient ischemic attacks (mini-strokes), multiple sclerosis, transverse myelitis, and encephalitis.Jun 14, 2018

Is there a difference between neuropathy and peripheral neuropathy?
Peripheral neuropathy refers to nerve damage involving the peripheral nervous system, which is those nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. The damaged peripheral nerves malfunction and provoke abnormal sensations, pain, and numbness. These sensory abnormalities most commonly affect the feet, lower legs, and hands.Oct 19, 2018

Can paresthesia be treated?
Treatment of Paresthesia. Treatment of paresthesia depends on an accurate diagnosis of the underlying cause. ... If the paresthesia is due to a chronic disease, such as diabetes, or occurs as a complication of treatments like chemotherapy, the majority of treatments are aimed at relief of the person's symptoms.

Dysesthesia should not be confused with anesthesia or hypoesthesia, which refer to a loss of sensation, or paresthesia which refers to a distorted sensation. Dysesthesia is distinct in that it can, but not necessarily, refer to spontaneous sensations in the absence of stimuli.

Term called myelopathy term --------------
Term called pallesthesia vibratory sensation
Term diabetic neuropathy (type of nerve damage and other )
Peripheral neuropathy motor neuropathyautonomic neuropathyaxillary nerve palsy
Direct injury to a nerve, interruption of its blood supply resulting in (ischemia), or inflammation also may cause mononeuropathy
"Polyneuropathy" is a pattern of nerve damage that is quite different from mononeuropathy, often more serious and affecting more areas of the body. The term "peripheral neuropathy" sometimes is used loosely to refer to polyneuropathy. In cases of polyneuropathy, many nerve cells in various parts of the body are affected, without regard to the nerve through which they pass; not all nerve cells are affected in any particular case. In distal axonopathy, one common pattern is that the cell bodies of neurons remain intact, but the axons are affected in proportion to their length; the longest axons are the most affected. Diabetic neuropathy is the most common cause of this pattern. In demyelinating polyneuropathies, the myelin sheath around axons is damaged, which affects the ability of the axons to conduct electrical impulses. The third and least common pattern affects the cell bodies of neurons directly. This usually picks out either the motor neurons (known as motor neuron disease) or the sensory neurons (known as sensory neuronopathy or dorsal root ganglionopathy).

small fiber peripheral neuropathy with typical symptoms of tingling, pain, and loss of sensation in the feet and hands
Mononeuritis multiplex also may cause pain, which is characterized as deep, aching pain that is worse at night and frequently in the lower back, hip, or leg. In people with diabetes mellitus, mononeuritis multiplex typically is encountered as acute, unilateral, and severe thigh pain followed by anterior muscle weakness and loss of knee reflex.[medical citation needed]
The signs and symptoms of autonomic neuropathy include the following:
• Urinary bladder conditions: bladder incontinence or urine retention
• Gastrointestinal tract: dysphagia, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, malabsorption, fecal incontinence, gastroparesis, diarrhoea, constipation
• Cardiovascular system: disturbances of heart rate (tachycardia, bradycardia), orthostatic hypotension, inadequate increase of heart rate on exertion
• Respiratory system: impairments in the signals associated with regulation of breathing and gas exchange (central sleep apnea, hypopnea, bradypnea).[21]
• Other areas: hypoglycemia unawareness, genital impotence, sweat disturbances

• Toxic causes: drugs (vincristine, metronidazole, phenytoin, nitrofurantoin, isoniazid, ethyl alcohol, statins),[medical citation needed] organic herbicides TCDD dioxin, organic metals, heavy metals, excess intake of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine). Peripheral neuropathies also may result from long term (more than 21 days) treatment with Linezolid (Zyvox).[medical citation needed]
• Adverse effects of fluoroquinolones: irreversible neuropathy is a serious adverse reaction of fluoroquinolone drugs[medical citation needed]

Neuritis is a general term for inflammation of a nerve[22] or the general inflammation of the peripheral nervous system. Symptoms depend on the nerves involved, but may include pain, paresthesia (pins-and-needles), paresis (weakness), hypoesthesia (numbness), anesthesia, paralysis, wasting, and disappearance of the reflexes.
Causes of neuritis include:
1. Pallesthesia
Pallesthesia refers to the sensation of mechanical vibration on or near the body. Vibration sense may be lost as a result of a number of lesions to the nervous system, often in conjunction with other deficits. The word "pallesthesia" is derived from the Greek pallein, meaning "to shake."

Pallesthesia - Wikipedia

Morgellons dysesthesia myriads eszema raphania pruritus

From Katrine elizabeeth sackett32463 whitelady (5’3)(5’21/2)
Spring terrace apts 7101 n ih 35 austin tx apt 214
Date May 9, 2019
Information found in internet articles and books
The easiest and fastest way to find probably would be to go under google first


Formication (also known as speed bumps, meth sores, crank bugs): A common symptom in diseases of the spinal cord and peripheral nerves involving the illusion or hallucination (also called delusions of parasitosis –DP for short) that ants, snakes or other insects are creeping on or under the skin causing itching. Formication is associated with psychotic states, drug and alcohol abuse (crystal meth, cocaine, amphetamines, heroine, alcohol), certain prescription medication (Ritalin, Adderall and Lunesta), menopause, allergies, diabetic neuropathy, skin cancer and with herpes zoster (shingles).
Heavy stimulant use causes a rise in body temperature and increased blood flow to the skin (to counteract the hyperthermia). Sweat is produced that contains an enzyme which further increases blood flow. As the sweat evaporates, it removes the protective oils on the skin. This scenario, combined with the toxins released from the skin, also dehydrates the dermal layer creating an itchy sensation on the nerve endings.
Other term for formication
Formication Meth mites, crank sores, speed bumps or bugs are common symptoms Medically known as formication, this condition occurs due to the severe dehydration and chemical imbalance the drug has caused in their body hallucinations of bugs crawling inside of them.. ……... These chemicals can cause toxic reactions in the body and many other serious side effects.
known to cause a rise in body temperature and increased sweating. The sweat that is produced contains an enzyme that increases blood flow to the skin. Additionally, the excess substance in the body is expelled through normal processes such urine and through the skin. When the sweat evaporates, it is acidic from the enzyme. This acidic sweat removes the protective oils which coat the skin. This combined with dehydration cause a crawling sensation on the nerve endings on the skin, leading users to believe that bugs are crawling on them.( prickling, tingling sensation known as "pins and needles".)(burning,wetness,itching,electric shock, and pins and needles) drug-induced formication

the skin, leading users to believe that bugs are crawling on them.( prickling, tingling sensation known as "pins and needles".)(burning,wetness,itching,electric shock, and pins and needles) drug-induced formication

addition,--------polypharmacy (simultaneous use of multiple medications) with concomitant side effects and potential drug interactions---------neuropathy, leading to paresthesia, which may be misinterpreted as bites or stings------
, the antidepressant --phenelzine produced both widespread pruritus and the perception of being infested with parasites ( Ritalin or Adderall.)

EXTRA----. Since stimulants rapidly accelerate the heart rate while simultaneously constricting blood vessels, making them work harder, they can weaken the cardiovascular system.

From and brochure made by katrine sackett32463 Info: internet and books

• Visualization
• Notes ( 0 )
• Class Mappings ( 14 )
Preferred Name Hypaesthesia
ID http://purl.bioontology.org/ontology/MEDDRA/10065987
Classified as Hypoaesthesia

cui C0020580
Member of Peripheral neuropathy (SMQ)
Guillain-Barre syndrome (SMQ)

notation 10065987
prefLabel Hypaesthesia
tui T033
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All you need to know about dysesthesia
Last updated Mon 17 June 2019
By Jennifer Huizen Reviewed by Nancy Hammond, MD
1. CausesSymptomsTypesLink with MSOther conditionsTreatment
2. Natural remedies
Dysesthesia is a sensation that people typically describe as painful, itchy, burning, or restrictive. It results from nerve damage and mostly occurs with neurological conditions.
Dysesthesia comes from two ancient Greek words that mean "abnormal sensation."
It can occur due to a stroke, carpal tunnel syndrome, and various other neurological disorders.
According to research, the burning, tingling, or aching pain of dysesthesia affects 12–28% of people with multiple sclerosis (MS).

People with dysesthesia may feel as if their skin is itching or burning.
Dysesthesia results from nerve damage. It happens when damage to the nerves causes their behavior to become unpredictable, which leads to inappropriate or incorrect signaling.
These confused messages go to the brain, which is often unable to interpret them. Consequently, the brain chooses to respond to a sensation or combination of sensations that it knows.
In the case of dysesthesia, impaired nerve firing can cause the brain to stimulate abnormal, uncomfortable sensations, ranging from a mild tingling sensation to sharp, stabbing pain.
Dysesthesia can be painful, but it is not a sign of tissue damage. The body tissues can remain fully functional and healthy, although prolonged misuse or lack of use due to pain and discomfort may leave them damaged.
The symptoms of dysesthesia vary between individuals, but they tend to affect the skin, scalp, face, mouth, torso, arms, and legs.
The most likely symptoms include:
• an itching, burning sensation that may resemble something crawling under or on the skin
• a restrictive feeling, especially around the trunk or torso, sometimes called an "MS hug"
• an unexplained painful sensation that often radiates to other parts of the body
• feelings of tingling or "pins and needles"
• the sensation of being on fire
• an uncomfortable, hard to describe feeling similar to that of hitting the funny bone
• the sensation of electric shocks
• sharp, stabbing pains
• pain or irritation, even from a light touch or no contact
• an aching feeling, similar to that of sore muscles
• hair loss, if it affects the scalp
Depending on the underlying cause, the sensations may be either acute — happening suddenly and resolving after a while — or chronic, which means that they persist.
Many cases of dysesthesia occur due to progressive conditions, so they often become worse over time.

Multiple sclerosis: What you need to know
Dysesthesia is often a result of multiple sclerosis (MS), learn more about the condition here.
Different types of dysesthesia affect different parts of the body, but they all result in skin discomfort without damage to the skin.
Scalp dysesthesia
Most people with this type of dysesthesia are likely to experience an intensely painful burning sensation under or on the skin of the scalp. This sensation can lead to scratching, which cannot provide relief, and hair loss.
Sometimes, scalp dysesthesia can result from a condition that affects the bones of the spine in the neck.
Cutaneous dysesthesia
Most people with this type of dysesthesia have sensitive skin that does not respond in the usual way to outside stimuli or touch. In some cases, loose-fitting clothes or a passing breeze may trigger sensations of pain, burning, or irritation.
Occlusal dysesthesia
Someone with this type of dysesthesia will feel as though their bite is uncomfortable without any apparent reason.
Occlusal dysesthesia is an uncommon side effect or complication of dental procedures.
Oral dysesthesia
Oral dysesthesia involves an unexplained sensation of pain or burning in the mouth or the oral structures, which include the jaw, tongue, and gums. Some doctors call it burning mouth syndrome.
Doctors do not know exactly why this sensation develops. It may be a symptom of many different conditions affecting the mouth or body. Sometimes, burning mouth syndrome can stem from a psychological disorder.
A person may also experience changes in their sense of taste or their response to temperature, and they may have difficulty speaking and eating.
Link with MS
Dysesthesia is a symptom of nerve-damaging conditions, in particular, those that target the central nervous system or the spinal cord and brain, such as MS. Dyesthesia is a very common symptom of MS.
MS is an autoimmune condition in which the body damages or destroys myelin, the layer of protective fatty tissue that allows electrical impulses to pass through.
When myelin damage is minimal, it may only slightly or temporarily impair nerve signaling. However, extensive myelin damage can shut down nerve communication altogether, which usually causes intense, long-term pain.

Multiple sclerosis: What you need to know
Click here to find out more about MS
Other conditions

Dysesthesia can occur with shingles.
Anything that involves damage to the nerves or nervous system can cause dysesthesia.
Other conditions that it can happen with include:
• diabetes Lyme disease Guillain-Barre syndrome
• withdrawal from or overuse of drugs HIV
• shingles stroke alcohol use disorder certain vitamin deficiencies nerve injuries

If the person does not have a long-term condition, such as MS, then dysesthesia will usually resolve after a few months. Treatment of the underlying condition will often lessen the dysesthesia.
Symptoms can improve with medications that change how the central nervous system processes pain.
Common pharmaceutical or surgical treatment options include:
• antiseizure drugs antidepressants certain cannabinoids some benzodiazepines
oral pain relievers or anti-inflammatories hydrocortisone creams or ointments
• surgical cutting of the damaged nerves, in severe cases
Natural remedies
A cool compress may help relieve discomfort.
Some natural treatment options might help relieve chronic pain, including nerve pain such as dysesthesia.
Possible options include:
• applying warm or cool compresses to the affected area
• wearing pressurized socks, stockings, pants, or gloves when possible
• getting enough sleep and avoiding stress, as far as possible
• staying hydrated
• using skin-calming lotions, creams, and washes that contain calamine or aloe
• using over-the-counter pain relievers or topical creams
• practicing mindfulness or meditation
• doing exercises that involve gentle stretching
• finding and avoiding triggers, where possible
• avoiding hot environments and not overheating during exercise
• choosing loose-fitting, cool, preferably cotton clothing and bedding
• taking lukewarm baths with Epsom salts and colloidal oats before bedtime
• trying alternative therapies, such as massage, chiropractic, hypnosis, acupuncture or acupressure, and hydrotherapy
• using biofeedback therapy, which involves using electrical sensors to determine which actions or reactions lead to symptoms and then trying to find ways to change or manage them
• joining a support group or getting counseling
• quitting or avoiding smoking
• doing relaxation exercises
The authors of a 2018 review suggested that some herbs may have the potential to treat nerve pain, but more research is necessary to confirm this.
There is not enough evidence to support all of the methods above, but an individual can try various practices to find out what works for them.
Some home remedies may also help reduce the intensity or frequency of symptoms.

Chronic nerve pain: Sensory neurons switch roles to transmit pain signalsIn chronic nerve pain, innocuous sensory neurons morph into pain-transmitting neurons, finds new study. This finding may open new inroads for drug design.READ NOW
Dysesthesia is what's called neuropathic or neurogenic pain. That means it comes from your nervous system. Although you feel the pain in your feet or skin, that isn't where the problem is.
Multiple sclerosis breaks down the covering that protects your nerves. That interrupts the messages between your brain and the rest of your body. Your brain can't read the nerve signals correctly, so it tells you that you feel something you really don't.
Whether you have pain doesn't seem to be related to what kind of MS you have, how serious it is, or how long you've had it. Sometimes dysesthesia is one of the first signs of MS.
noundys·es·the·siavariants: or chiefly British dysaesthesia \ ˌdis-es-ˈthē-zh(ē-)ə \
Medical Definition of dysesthesia
: impairment of sensitivity especially to touch
Other Words from dysesthesiadysesthetic or chiefly British dysaesthetic \ -ˈthet-ik \ adjective

an impaired condition of any of the senses.

What is peripheral neuropathy?Peripheral neuropathy is common among people with diabetes, causing loss of sensitivity in the hands and feet, and in organs such as the kidneys, heart, and eyes. Find out here about other medical conditions and causes that can lead to peripheral neuropathy and result in nerve tingling and muscle wastage or paralysis.READ NOW
• It can involve the autonomic nerves, the motor nerves, and the sensory nerves.
• Sometimes it affects a single nerve or nerve set, for example, in Bell's Palsy, which affects a facial nerve.
• Physical trauma, repetitive injury, infection, metabolic problems, and exposure to toxins and some drugs are all possible causes.
People with diabetes have a high risk of neuropathy.

Chronic nerve pain: Sensory neurons switch roles to transmit pain signalsIn chronic nerve pain, innocuous sensory neurons morph into pain-transmitting neurons, finds new study. This finding may open new inroads for drug design.READ NOW

3 Types of Peripheral Nerves n Motor n Sensory n Autonomic

Motor nerves send impulses from the brain and spinal cord to all of the muscles in the body. This permits people to do activities like walking, catching a baseball, or moving the fingers to pick something up. Motor nerve damage can lead to muscle weakness, difficulty walking or moving the arms, cramps and spasms.

sensory nerves send messages in the other direction—from the muscles back to the spinal cord and the brain. Special sensors in the skin and deep inside the body help people identify if an object is sharp, rough, or smooth; if it’s hot or cold; or if it’s standing still or in motion. Sensory nerve damage often results in tingling, numbness, pain, and extreme sensitivity to touch. Larger sensory fibers enclosed in myelin (a fatty protein that coats and insulates the nerves) registers vibration, light touch and position sense. Damage to large sensory fibers decreases the ability to feel vibrations and touch, resulting in a general sense of numbness, particularly in the hands and feet. Loss of position sense often makes people unable to coordinate complex movements like walking, holding a pen, and fastening buttons. Smaller sensory fibers without myelin sheaths transmit pain and temperature sensations. Damage to these fibers can interfere with the ability to feel pain or changes in temperature.

AutonoMic nerves control in- voluntary or sem-voluntary functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and sweating. When the autonomic nerves are damaged, a person’s heart may beat faster or slower. They may get dizzy when standing up; sweat excessively; or have difficulty sweating at all. In addition, autonomic nerve damage may result in difficulty swallowing, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation, problems with urination, abnormal pupil size, and sexual dysfunction

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Dysesthesia (or dysaesthesia) comes from the Greek word "dys," meaning "not-normal," and "aesthesis," which means "sensation" (abnormal sensation). It is defined as an unpleasant, abnormal sense of touch. It often presents as pain[1] but may also present as an inappropriate, but not discomforting, sensation. It is caused by lesions of the nervous system, peripheral or central, and it involves sensations, whether spontaneous or evoked, such as burning, wetness, itching, electric shock, and pins and needles.[1] Dysesthesia can include sensations in any bodily tissue, including most often the mouth, scalp, skin, or legs.[1]
It is sometimes described as feeling like acid under the skin. Burning dysesthesia might accurately reflect an acidotic state in the synapses and perineural space. Some ion channels will open to a low pH, and the acid sensing ion channel has been shown to open at body temperature, in a model of nerve injury pain. Inappropriate, spontaneous firing in pain receptors has also been implicated as a cause of dysesthesia.[citation needed]
People with dysesthesia can become incapacitated with pain, despite no apparent damage to the skin or other tissue. Dysesthesia patients also often have psychological disorders.
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• Types
• Presentation
• Causes
• Diagnosis
o Differential diagnosis
• Treatment
• Research
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• See also
• References
• Further reading
Dysesthesia can generally be described as a class of neurological disorders. It can be further classified depending on where it manifests in the body, and by the type of sensation that it provokes.
Cutaneous dysesthesia is characterized by discomfort or pain from touch to the skin by normal stimuli, including clothing. The unpleasantness can range from a mild tingling to blunt, incapacitating pain.
Scalp dysesthesia is characterized by pain or burning sensations on or under the surface of the cranial skin. Scalp dysesthesia may also present as excessive itching of the scalp.
Occlusal dysesthesia, or "phantom bite," is characterized by the feeling that the bite is "out of place" (occlusal dystopia) despite any apparent damage or instability to dental or oromaxillofacial structures or tissue. Phantom bite often presents in patients that have undergone otherwise routine dental procedures. Short of compassionate counseling, evidence for effective treatment regimes is lacking.
A person with dysesthesia can find it to be unbearable at times. Dysesthetic burning has been called "Dante-esque" pain.[by whom?] The terminology used to describe it is usually interchangeable with descriptions of Hell in classic literature. It is the "bluntest" pain of which the human body is capable, and is characterized by the absence of accurate discriminative information.[citation needed]
Temperature change and heat both affect the sensation and raise the level of the steady pain. This pain upgrades with tonic light touch, phasic rubbing, or rough textures to become evoked pain.
The patient often cannot endure the touch of clothing. His or her entire life becomes an exercise in avoiding evoked pain. It causes difficulty in obtaining rest because bed-clothing contacts the skin. It drives the patient to a hysterical search for relief of the pain, which ends in some degree of resignation and frequent depression. Patients indicate that it has robbed them of their identity, since their values and mental priorities are so consumed by its avoidance.[2]
Chronic anxiety is often associated with dysesthesia.[3] Patients with this anxiety may experience numbness or tingling in the face. In one study, those patients that were examined psychologically had symptoms of anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, or somatoform disorder.[4]
• Dysesthesia is commonly seen in diabetic patients, and can be relieved by using creams containing capsaicin.
• Dysesthesia may be seen in patients with Guillain–Barré syndrome.
• Dysesthesia is among symptoms of neuropathy (along with paresthesias, gait disturbance, weakness, and absent DTRs).
• Dysesthesia, along with polyneuropathy can be a symptom of nerve damage caused by Lyme Disease.[5] The dysesthetic sensations continue after the successful antibiotic treatment of Lyme disease.
• Dysesthesia is a common symptom of a withdrawal from alcohol or other drugs.
• Dysesthesia is also a common symptom of multiple sclerosis. It is an effect of spinal cord injury.[6]
• Many patients with occlusal dysesthesia have reported recent oral surgery before the onset of dysesthetic pain.[4]
• Late-onset GM2 gangliosidosis may also present as burning dysesthesia.[7]
• Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is a progressive, enduring and often irreversible tingling numbness, intense pain, and hypersensitivity to cold, beginning in the hands and feet and sometimes involving the arms and legs caused by some chemotherapy agents.[8]
• Dysesthesia may be caused by a thalamic stroke involving the ventral postero-lateral (VPL) nucleus. It's typically seen in Dejerine-Roussy syndrome with hemi-sensory loss and severe dysesthesia of the affected area.
Differential diagnosisEdit
Although dysesthesia is similar to phantom limb syndrome, they should not be confused. In phantom limb, the sensation is present in an amputated or absent limb, while dysesthesia refers to discomfort or pain in a tissue that has not been removed or amputated. The dysesthetic tissue may also not be part of a limb, but part of the body, such as the abdomen. The majority of individuals with both phantom limb and dysesthesia experience painful sensations.
Phantom pain refers to dysesthetic feelings in individuals who are paralyzed or who were born without limbs. It is caused by the improper innervation of the missing limbs by the nerves that would normally innervate the limb. Dysesthesia is caused by damage to the nerves themselves, rather than by an innervation of absent tissue.
Dysesthesia should not be confused with anesthesia or hypoesthesia, which refer to a loss of sensation, or paresthesia which refers to a distorted sensation. Dysesthesia is distinct in that it can, but not necessarily, refer to spontaneous sensations in the absence of stimuli. In the case of an evoked dysesthetic sensation, such as by the touch of clothing, the sensation is characterized not simply by an exaggeration of the feeling, but rather by a completely inappropriate sensation such as burning.
Daily oral muscle physical therapy, or the administration of antidepressants have been reported as effective therapy for occlusal dysesthesia patients.[4] Tooth grinding, and the replacement or removal of all dental work should be avoided in patients with occlusal dysesthesia,[4] despite the frequent requests for further surgery often made by these patients.
Antidepressants are also often prescribed for scalp dysesthesia.
Prakash et al. found that many patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS), one variant of occlusal dysesthesia, also report painful sensations in other parts of the body. Many of the patients with BMS met the classification of restless leg syndrome (RLS). About half of these patients also had a family history of RLS. These results suggest that some BMS symptoms may be caused by the same pathway as RLS in some patients, indicating that dopaminergic drugs regularly used to treat RLS may be effective in treating BMS as well.
There are a number of hypotheses regarding the basis of occlusal dysesthesia. Some researchers believe the disorder is a psychological one, while others believe it to be a psychosomatic disorder.[4] Joseph Marbach hypothesized that the symptoms were rooted in psychiatric disorders. Marbach suggested that occlusal dysesthesia would occur in patients with underlying psychological problems (such as schizophrenia) after having undergone dental treatment. More recently, two studies have found that occlusal dysesthesia is associated with somatoform disorders in which the patients obsess over the oral sensations.
Similarly, Marbach later proposed that occlusal dysesthesia may be caused by the brain “talking to itself,” causing abnormal oral sensations in the absence of external stimuli. According to this model, the symptoms of dysesthesia are catalyzed by dental “amputation,” for example the extraction of a tooth, whereby the brain loses the ability to distinguish between its memory of the bite and the actual, new bite. The patient, unable to recognize his or her own bite, becomes especially attentive to these perceived oral discrepancies. Finally and most recently, Greene and Gelb suggested that instead of having a psychological root, dysesthesia may be caused by a false signal being sent from the peripheral nervous system to the central nervous system. However, the reviewers note that no method exists for determining sensor nerve thresholds, and so sensory perception in the mouth is often measured by interdental thickness discrimination (ITD), or the ability to differentiate between the sizes of objects (thin blocks) placed between teeth. In one study, occlusal dysesthesia patients showed greater ability to differentiate these thicknesses than control, healthy individuals, but these differences were not statistically significant.
• Bennett et al. produced an artificial peripheral mononeuropathy in rats by surgically constricting the sciatic nerve.[9] These rats showed an increased response to noxious radiant heat, were nocifensive when placed on a cold metal floor, protected their hind paws, and had suppressed appetite. Additionally, the paws of many of these rats were inappropriately warm or cool to the touch, and many of the rats overgrew claws on the affected paws as well. These results indicate that the rats exhibited hyperalgesia, allodynia, and dysesthesia.
• In a study in which researchers cut spinal nerves in rats, researchers found these rats exhibited a longer duration in spontaneous foot lifting, hypersensitivity to mechanical stimuli, allodynia, and hyperalgesia.[10] Additionally, the receptive field neurons in this nerve pathway showed spontaneous firing in low-threshold nociceptors, suggesting that nerve damage can cause dysesthesia.
• In women with chronic pain or itchy scalps without any apparent physical cause, about half had from psychiatric disorders. For the majority of these women, their symptoms of scalp dysesthesia were alleviated or removed by treatment with low doses of antidepressants.[11]
• Landerholm et al. hypothesized that dynamic mechanical allodynia (DMA) might be the hyperbole of dynamic mechanical dysesthesia (DMD), mediated by peripheral nerves. When the researchers artificially blocked nerves in patients with peripheral neuropthic pain or central post-stroke pain, DMA symptoms in many of the patients transitioned into DMD symptoms. Additionally, the researchers determined that the number of mechanocreceptive fibers associated with the nociceptive system was responsible for the differentiation of DMA to DMD.[12]
• Ochoa et al. recorded intraneural signals in subjects with post-ischaemic paraesthesiae. The researchers found the signals to be spontaneous. The frequency of the signals paralleled the intensity and timing of the paresthetic sensations reported by the patients. These results suggest that paresthetic sensations are the result of inappropriate firing frequency and timing by impulses from sensory cells.[13]
• Tuskiyama et al. assessed occlusal dysesthesia patients using an interdental thickness discrimination test and a psychological examination. The researchers found that occlusal dysesthesia patients could not discriminate the thickness of material in their bite any better than normal dental patients, but that the occlusal dysesthesia patients were significantly more likely to exhibit psychological disorders.[14]
See alsoEdit
• Paresthesia
• Scalp dysesthesia
1. ^ a b c IASP Pain Terminology Archived 2008-05-12 at the Wayback Machine.
2. ^ "Dysesthetic Burning - Pain Online". painonline.org.
3. ^ "How to Stop Chronic Anxiety From Dysesthesia". www.calmclinic.com (link is external).
4. ^ a b c d e Hara, E. S., Matsuka, Y., Minakuchi, H., Clark, G. T., & Kuboki, T. (2012). Occlusal dysesthesia: a qualitative systematic review of the epidemiology, aetiology and management. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 39(8): 630-638. [1]
5. ^ Klempner, M. S., Hu, L. T., Evans, J., Schmid, C. H., Johnson, G. M., Trevino, R. P., . . . Weinstein, A. (2001). Two controlled trials of antibiotic treatment in patients with persistent symptoms and a history of Lyme disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 345(2), 85-92.
6. ^ "Understandng Dysesthesia in Multiple Sclerosis". about.com.
7. ^ Chow, G. C. S., Clarke, J. T. R., & Banwell, B. L. (2001). Late-onset GM2 gangliosidosis presenting as burning dysesthesias. Pediatric Neurology, 25(1).
8. ^ del Pino BM. Chemotherapy-induced Peripheral Neuropathy. NCI Cancer Bulletin. Feb 23, 2010 [archived 2011-12-11];7(4):6.
10. ^ Djouhri, L., Fang, X., Koutsikou, S., & Lawson, S. N. (2012). Partial nerve injury induces electrophysiological changes in conducting (uninjured) nociceptive and nonnociceptive DRG neurons: Possible relationships to aspects of peripheral neuropathic pain and paresthesias. Pain, 153(9).
11. ^ Hoss, D., & Segal, S. (1998). Scalp dysesthesia. Archives of Dermatology, 134(3). doi: 10.1001/archderm.134.3.327
12. ^ Landerholm, A. H., & Hansson, P. T. (2011). Mechanisms of dynamic mechanical allodynia and dysesthesia in patients with peripheral and central neuropathic pain. European Journal of Pain, 15(5).
14. ^ Tsukiyama, Y., Yamada, A., Kuwatsuru, R., & Koyano, K. (2012). Bio-psycho-social assessment of occlusal dysaesthesia patients. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 39(8).
Further readingEdit
• Gale Encyclopedia of Neurological Disorders
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Related articles
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Other forms of formication and numbness on body or in body

A person may feel numbness in their legs and feet due to sitting in a position that puts too much pressure on the nerves or reduces blood flow. However, long-lasting or unexplained numbness may be a sign of an underlying medical condition.
Anyone who experiences numbness that is unexplained, persistent, frequent, painful, disabling, or accompanied by other chronic symptoms should see a doctor for a diagnosis and to discuss treatment options.
Crossing the legs for a long time may cause numbness and tingling in the legs and feet.

Postural habits that put pressure on nerves or reduce blood flow in the lower limbs are the most common cause of temporary numbness in the legs and feet. Many people say their leg has "fallen asleep," and the medical term is transient (temporary) paresthesia.
Habits that can cause the feet and legs to fall asleep include:
crossing the legs for too long
sitting or kneeling for long periods
sitting on the feet
wearing pants, socks, or shoes that are too tight
Injuries to the torso, spine, hips, legs, ankles, and feet can put pressure on nerves and cause the feet and legs to go numb.
Diabetes---Some people with diabetes develop a type of nerve damage called diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic neuropathy can cause numbness, tingling, and pain in the feet, and if severe, the legs as well.
Lower back issues and sciatica
Other types of nerve damage and diseases or poor circulation

Fibromyalgia is a chronic or long-lasting condition that causes widespread body pain, aching, and tenderness. Some people with fibromyalgia also experience numbness and tingling in the hands and feet.
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) causes the peripheral blood arteries in the legs, arms, and stomach to narrow, reducing the amount of blood they can pump and reducing blood flow. The legs are one of the most common parts of the body impacted by PAD.
Long-term numbness or a tingling feeling in the legs and feet may be due to conditions such as multiple sclerosis (MS), diabetes, peripheral artery disease, or fibromyalgia. The sensation may be felt in the whole leg, below the knee, or in different areas of the foot.(ITCHY FEELING)
Tarsal tunnel syndrome occurs when a nerve that runs down the back of the leg and along the inside of the ankle and into the foot is compressed, squeezed, or damaged

toxins and some drugs are all possible causes Consumption of psychotropic drugs (for example, LSD ).Certain medications AND Toxic action on nerves

Changes in electrolytes , such as abnormal levels of calcium, potassium or sodium in the body

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