formication terms several articles under several terms hyp·es·the·siaParesthesia numbness nerve damage and other articles july 2019
Hypoesthesia - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/hypoesthesia
Dec 05, 1988 · J.P. Mohr, Jeffrey R. Binder, in Stroke (Fifth Edition), 2011. Sensory Syndromes. Hypesthesia or anesthesia is explained by supply to the ventral tier nuclei of the thalamus in the territory of its penetrating branches. 43 Individual reports describing hypesthesia, and even “considerable anesthesia,” include one from the pre-20th century literature with a large, autopsy-documented ...
kesackett 2 days ago · 0 Likes
hyp·es·the·sia
[ˌhipəsˈTHēZHə, ˌhīpəs-]
hypaesthesia (noun)
1. a diminished capacity for physical sensation, especially of the skin.
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Hypoesthesia - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypoesthesia
Hypoesthesia is a common side effect of various medical conditions which manifests as a reduced sense of touch or sensation, or a partial loss of sensitivity to sensory stimuli.In everyday speech this is generally referred to as numbness. Hypoesthesia primarily results from damage to nerves, and from blockages in blood vessels, resulting in ischemic damage to tissues supplied by the blocked ...
2. Hypesthesia | definition of hypesthesia by Medical dictionary
https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/hypesthesia
hypesthesia Partial or total loss of the sense of touch. hypesthesia Diminished sensitivity to tactile stimuli hyp·es·the·si·a (hīp'es-thē'zē-ă)
3. Hyperesthesia: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment
https://www.healthline.com/health/hyperesthesia
Jan 29, 2018 · Hyperesthesia is an increase in the sensitivity of any of your senses, such as sight, sound, touch, and smell. It can affect just one or all of the senses.
o Dysesthesia: Symptoms, Treatments, and Defi…Parethesia: Causes, Treatment, and More
4. Hypesthesia Medical Definition | Merriam-Webster Medical ...
https://www.merriam-webster.com/medical/hypesthesia
Medical definition of hypesthesia: impaired or decreased tactile sensibility. Time Traveler: Explore other words from the year hypesthesia first appeared Time Traveler! Explore the year a word first appeared
5. Hypoesthesia | definition of hypoesthesia by Medical ...
https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/hypoesthesia
hypoesthesia: [ hi″po-es-the´zhah ] abnormally decreased sensitivity to stimuli, particularly to touch . Called also hypesthesia . adj., adj hypoesthet´ic. Numb chin syndrome (NCS) is characterized by hypoesthesia, paresthesia, thermalgesic anesthesia, or pain over the chin in the region supplied by the mental nerve, a terminal branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve.

Hypesthesia Medical Definition | Merriam-Webster Medical ...
https://www.merriam-webster.com/medical/hypesthesia
Medical definition of hypesthesia: impaired or decreased tactile sensibility. Time Traveler: Explore other words from the year hypesthesia first appeared Time Traveler! Explore the year a word first appeared
1. Hypoesthesia | definition of hypoesthesia by Medical ...
https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/hypoesthesia
hypoesthesia: [ hi″po-es-the´zhah ] abnormally decreased sensitivity to stimuli, particularly to touch . Called also hypesthesia . adj., adj hypoesthet´ic. Numb chin syndrome (NCS) is characterized by hypoesthesia, paresthesia, thermalgesic anesthesia, or pain over the chin in the region supplied by the mental nerve, a terminal branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve.
2. Hypoesthesia - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/hypoesthesia
Dec 05, 1988 · J.P. Mohr, Jeffrey R. Binder, in Stroke (Fifth Edition), 2011. Sensory Syndromes. Hypesthesia or anesthesia is explained by supply to the ventral tier nuclei of the thalamus in the territory of its penetrating branches. 43 Individual reports describing hypesthesia, and even “considerable anesthesia,” include one from the pre-20th century literature with a large, autopsy-documented ...
HyperesthesiaFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hyperesthesia is a condition that involves an abnormal increase in sensitivity to stimuli of the sense. "When a non-noxious stimulus causes the sensation of pain the area will be termed hyperaesthetic".[1] Stimuli of the senses can include sound that one hears, foods that one tastes, textures that one feels, and so forth
7. Hypesthesia | Definition of Hypesthesia at Dictionary.com
https://www.dictionary.com/browse/hypesthesia
Hypesthesia definition, an abnormally weak sense of pain, heat, cold, or touch. See more.
hackett 2 days ago · 0 Likes
Hypesthesia | Definition of Hypesthesia at Dictionary.com
https://www.dictionary.com/browse/hypesthesia
Hypesthesia definition, an abnormally weak sense of pain, heat, cold, or touch. See more.
1. Related searches for hypesthesiadifference between hypoesthesia and paresthesiacauses of hypoesthesiainfraorbital hypesthesiahyperesthesia definitionhypesthesia definitionfacial hypesthesiahyperesthesia syndrome in humanshypesthesia numbnessPhantosmia
2. Hypesthesia | Definition of Hypesthesia at Dictionary.com
https://www.dictionary.com/browse/hypesthesia
Hypesthesia definition, an abnormally weak sense of pain, heat, cold, or touch. See more.
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o difference between hypoesthesia and paresthesia
o causes of hypoesthesiainfraorbital hypesthesiahyperesthesia definition
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Hypoesthesia
Other names Hypesthesia
Specialty
Neurology
https://www.lifepersona.com/hypoaesthesia-symptoms-causes-and-treatment
Is hypoesthesia the same as paraesthesia? Conceptual clarifications
It is important not to confuse hypoesthesia with Paresthesia . The latter refers to an abnormal sensation of tingling or numbness in some part of the body. It does not have to be unpleasant.
On the other hand, it is useful to clarify that hypoesthesia is different from Dysesthesia . This is an unpleasant sensation, which can be painful or uncomfortable. It manifests as tingling, burning, punctures, cramps... that annoy the patient.
As for the term hypoalgesia, this refers exclusively to a decrease in the ability to feel pain. Hypoesthesia encompasses hypoalgesia, and includes, in addition, the lack of sensitivity to temperature and skin contact in general.
While anesthesia, it would be an extreme hypoesthesia. That is, a total loss of sensitivity of a certain area of the body.
The opposite of hypoesthesia would be hyperesthesia, which consists of an increase in the sensitivity of the skin. You may feel more pain (hyperalgesia), temperature, or any other skin sensation.

Paresthesia definition medical
Answer from 5 sources
medical Definition of paresthesia. : a sensation of pricking, tingling, or creeping on the skin having no objective cause and usually associated with injury or irritation of a sensory nerve or nerve root.
Paresthesia | Definition of Paresthesia by Merriam-Webster
merriam-webster.com
Medical Definition of Paresthesia. Paresthesia: An abnormal sensation of the body, such as numbness, tingling, or burning.
Medical Definition of Paresthesia - MedicineNet
medicinenet.com
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dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia
successive irritation of nerve fibrils in the skin. At times patients who suffer from it will scarcely be persuaded that it is not due to insects.
These symptoms usually arise from nerve damage (neuropathy). Continued nerve damage can lead to numbness (lost of sensation) or paralysis (loss of movement and sensation). Paresthesia is one of the symptoms of Hypervitaminosis-D. ... Peripheral neuropathy is a general term indicating disturbances in the peripheral nerves.
Numbness (paresthesia and neuropathy) (MPKB)https://mpkb.org/home/symptoms/neurological/paresthesia
What is paresthesia and what causes it?
Chronic paresthesia is often a symptom of an underlying neurological disease or traumatic nerve damage. Paresthesia can be caused by disorders affecting the central nervous system, such as stroke and transient ischemic attacks (mini-strokes), multiple sclerosis, transverse myelitis, and encephalitis.Jun 14, 2018
Is there a difference between neuropathy and peripheral neuropathy?
Peripheral neuropathy refers to nerve damage involving the peripheral nervous system, which is those nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. The damaged peripheral nerves malfunction and provoke abnormal sensations, pain, and numbness. These sensory abnormalities most commonly affect the feet, lower legs, and hands.Oct 19, 2018
Can paresthesia be treated?
Treatment of Paresthesia. Treatment of paresthesia depends on an accurate diagnosis of the underlying cause. ... If the paresthesia is due to a chronic disease, such as diabetes, or occurs as a complication of treatments like chemotherapy, the majority of treatments are aimed at relief of the person's symptoms.
Dysesthesia should not be confused with anesthesia or hypoesthesia, which refer to a loss of sensation, or paresthesia which refers to a distorted sensation. Dysesthesia is distinct in that it can, but not necessarily, refer to spontaneous sensations in the absence of stimuli.
Term called myelopathy term --------------
Term called pallesthesia vibratory sensation
Term diabetic neuropathy (type of nerve damage and other )
Peripheral neuropathy motor neuropathyautonomic neuropathyaxillary nerve palsy
Direct injury to a nerve, interruption of its blood supply resulting in (ischemia), or inflammation also may cause mononeuropathy
"Polyneuropathy" is a pattern of nerve damage that is quite different from mononeuropathy, often more serious and affecting more areas of the body. The term "peripheral neuropathy" sometimes is used loosely to refer to polyneuropathy. In cases of polyneuropathy, many nerve cells in various parts of the body are affected, without regard to the nerve through which they pass; not all nerve cells are affected in any particular case. In distal axonopathy, one common pattern is that the cell bodies of neurons remain intact, but the axons are affected in proportion to their length; the longest axons are the most affected. Diabetic neuropathy is the most common cause of this pattern. In demyelinating polyneuropathies, the myelin sheath around axons is damaged, which affects the ability of the axons to conduct electrical impulses. The third and least common pattern affects the cell bodies of neurons directly. This usually picks out either the motor neurons (known as motor neuron disease) or the sensory neurons (known as sensory neuronopathy or dorsal root ganglionopathy).
small fiber peripheral neuropathy with typical symptoms of tingling, pain, and loss of sensation in the feet and hands
Mononeuritis multiplex also may cause pain, which is characterized as deep, aching pain that is worse at night and frequently in the lower back, hip, or leg. In people with diabetes mellitus, mononeuritis multiplex typically is encountered as acute, unilateral, and severe thigh pain followed by anterior muscle weakness and loss of knee reflex.[medical citation needed]
The signs and symptoms of autonomic neuropathy include the following:
• Urinary bladder conditions: bladder incontinence or urine retention
• Gastrointestinal tract: dysphagia, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, malabsorption, fecal incontinence, gastroparesis, diarrhoea, constipation
• Cardiovascular system: disturbances of heart rate (tachycardia, bradycardia), orthostatic hypotension, inadequate increase of heart rate on exertion
• Respiratory system: impairments in the signals associated with regulation of breathing and gas exchange (central sleep apnea, hypopnea, bradypnea).[21]
• Other areas: hypoglycemia unawareness, genital impotence, sweat disturbances
• Toxic causes: drugs (vincristine, metronidazole, phenytoin, nitrofurantoin, isoniazid, ethyl alcohol, statins),[medical citation needed] organic herbicides TCDD dioxin, organic metals, heavy metals, excess intake of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine). Peripheral neuropathies also may result from long term (more than 21 days) treatment with Linezolid (Zyvox).[medical citation needed]
• Adverse effects of fluoroquinolones: irreversible neuropathy is a serious adverse reaction of fluoroquinolone drugs[medical citation needed]
Neuritis[edit]
Neuritis is a general term for inflammation of a nerve[22] or the general inflammation of the peripheral nervous system. Symptoms depend on the nerves involved, but may include pain, paresthesia (pins-and-needles), paresis (weakness), hypoesthesia (numbness), anesthesia, paralysis, wasting, and disappearance of the reflexes.
Causes of neuritis include:
1. Pallesthesia
Pallesthesia refers to the sensation of mechanical vibration on or near the body. Vibration sense may be lost as a result of a number of lesions to the nervous system, often in conjunction with other deficits. The word "pallesthesia" is derived from the Greek pallein, meaning "to shake."
Pallesthesia - Wikipedia
Morgellons dysesthesia myriads eszema raphania pruritus
From Katrine elizabeeth sackett32463 whitelady (5’3)(5’21/2)
Spring terrace apts 7101 n ih 35 austin tx apt 214
Date May 9, 2019
Information found in internet articles and books
The easiest and fastest way to find probably would be to go under google
sackette 2 days ago · 0 Likes
EDUCATIONAL
HAND-OUT
ON
FORMICATION
FROM KATRINE SACKETT 32463 INFO: INTERNET AND BOOKS
Formication
Formication (also known as speed bumps, meth sores, crank bugs): A common symptom in diseases of the spinal cord and peripheral nerves involving the illusion or hallucination (also called delusions of parasitosis –DP for short) that ants, snakes or other insects are creeping on or under the skin causing itching. Formication is associated with psychotic states, drug and alcohol abuse (crystal meth, cocaine, amphetamines, heroine, alcohol), certain prescription medication (Ritalin, Adderall and Lunesta), menopause, allergies, diabetic neuropathy, skin cancer and with herpes zoster (shingles).
Heavy stimulant use causes a rise in body temperature and increased blood flow to the skin (to counteract the hyperthermia). Sweat is produced that contains an enzyme which further increases blood flow. As the sweat evaporates, it removes the protective oils on the skin. This scenario, combined with the toxins released from the skin, also dehydrates the dermal layer creating an itchy sensation on the nerve endings.
________________________________________
Other term for formication
Formication Meth mites, crank sores, speed bumps or bugs are common symptoms Medically known as formication, this condition occurs due to the severe dehydration and chemical imbalance the drug has caused in their body hallucinations of bugs crawling inside of them.. ……... These chemicals can cause toxic reactions in the body and many other serious side effects.
known to cause a rise in body temperature and increased sweating. The sweat that is produced contains an enzyme that increases blood flow to the skin. Additionally, the excess substance in the body is expelled through normal processes such urine and through the skin. When the sweat evaporates, it is acidic from the enzyme. This acidic sweat removes the protective oils which coat the skin. This combined with dehydration cause a crawling sensation on the nerve endings on the skin, leading users to believe that bugs are crawling on them.( prickling, tingling sensation known as "pins and needles".)(burning,wetness,itching,electric shock, and pins and needles) drug-induced formication
the skin, leading users to believe that bugs are crawling on them.( prickling, tingling sensation known as "pins and needles".)(burning,wetness,itching,electric shock, and pins and needles) drug-induced formication
________________________________________
UNDER FORMICATION
addition,--------polypharmacy (simultaneous use of multiple medications) with concomitant side effects and potential drug interactions---------neuropathy, leading to paresthesia, which may be misinterpreted as bites or stings------
, the antidepressant --phenelzine produced both widespread pruritus and the perception of being infested with parasites ( Ritalin or Adderall.)
EXTRA----. Since stimulants rapidly accelerate the heart rate while simultaneously constricting blood vessels, making them work harder, they can weaken the cardiovascular system.
From and brochure made by katrine sackett32463
kesackett 2 days ago · 0 Likes
rumors about a claim that people were left things to them by their ancestry's that is not true first the kids look like thier united states citizens they don't have in foreign countrys any ancestry's they are not considered ancestries not to mention a lot of them who are germans here did not ever even take their kids to visit their relatives over their anyway so no no truth to the rumors of you all left anything by your ancestry's
second those of you who are here and are foriegners are not being left anything from your ancestry's they left to many bills behind which were unpaid and that includes houses and the houses rebuild or remodeled which means not then paid off therefore, due to that the government which they borrowed the money from to rebuild houses or remodel it or the builders/contruction companies will get the houses to resale the houses to get the money back to pay for products they used to remodel the houses same with any thing else
so the fact is no one left you all anything from your ancestry's to you all like this rumor claims
signed Katrine Elizabeth sackett32463whitelady5'3(5'21/2)
hackettsackett 2 days ago · 0 Likes
Hypoesthesia | definition of hypoesthesia by Medical ...
https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/hypoesthesia
hypoesthesia: [ hi″po-es-the´zhah ] abnormally decreased sensitivity to stimuli, particularly to touch . Called also hypesthesia . adj., adj hypoesthet´ic.
1. Hypoesthesia - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/hypoesthesia
Dec 05, 1988 · J.P. Mohr, Jeffrey R. Binder, in Stroke (Fifth Edition), 2011. Sensory Syndromes. Hypesthesia or anesthesia is explained by supply to the ventral tier nuclei of the thalamus in the territory of its penetrating branches. 43 Individual reports describing hypesthesia, and even “considerable anesthesia,” include one from the pre-20th century literature with a large, autopsy-documented ...
Risk factors for hypoesthesia following repair of facial ...
Vasovagal Response - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics
Cutaneous Hypesthesia and Kneeling Ability After Total ...
Anesthesia Dolorosa - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics
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8. Hypesthesia | Definition of Hypesthesia at Dictionary.com
https://www.dictionary.com/browse/hypesthesia
Hypesthesia definition, an abnormally weak sense of pain, heat, cold, or touch. See more.
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o causes of hypoesthesia
o infraorbital hypesthesia
o hyperesthesia definition
o hypesthesia definition
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o hypesthesia numbness
10.
Hypoesthesia
Other names Hypesthesia
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hyp·es·the·sia
[ˌhipəsˈTHēZHə, ˌhīpəs-]
NOUN
hypaesthesia (noun)
1. a diminished capacity for physical sensation, especially of the skin.
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2. Hypoesthesia - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypoesthesia
Hypoesthesia is a common side effect of various medical conditions which manifests as a reduced sense of touch or sensation, or a partial loss of sensitivity to sensory stimuli.In everyday speech this is generally referred to as numbness. Hypoesthesia primarily results from damage to nerves, and from blockages in blood vessels, resulting in ischemic damage to tissues supplied by the blocked ...
3. Hypesthesia | definition of hypesthesia by Medical dictionary
https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/hypesthesia
hypesthesia Partial or total loss of the sense of touch. hypesthesia Diminished sensitivity to tactile stimuli hyp·es·the·si·a (hīp'es-thē'zē-ă)
4. Hyperesthesia: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment
https://www.healthline.com/health/hyperesthesia
Jan 29, 2018 · Hyperesthesia is an increase in the sensitivity of any of your senses, such as sight, sound, touch, and smell. It can affect just one or all of the senses.
Other articles from healthline.com
o Dysesthesia: Symptoms, Treatments, and Defi…
o Parethesia: Causes, Treatment, and More
5. Hypesthesia Medical Definition | Merriam-Webster Medical ...
https://www.merriam-webster.com/medical/hypesthesia
Medical definition of hypesthesia: impaired or decreased tactile sensibility. Time Traveler: Explore other words from the year hypesthesia first appeared Time Traveler! Explore the ye
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Dysesthesia • Read in another language • Watch this page • Edit Dysesthesia (or dysaesthesia) comes from the Greek word "dys," meaning "not-normal," and "aesthesis," which means "sensation" (abnormal sensation). It is defined as an unpleasant, abnormal sense of touch. It often presents as pain[1] but may also present as an inappropriate, but not discomforting, sensation. It is caused by lesions of the nervous system, peripheral or central, and it involves sensations, whether spontaneous or evoked, such as burning, wetness, itching, electric shock, and pins and needles.[1] Dysesthesia can include sensations in any bodily tissue, including most often the mouth, scalp, skin, or legs.[1] It is sometimes described as feeling like acid under the skin. Burning dysesthesia might accurately reflect an acidotic state in the synapses and perineural space. Some ion channels will open to a low pH, and the acid sensing ion channel has been shown to open at body temperature, in a model of nerve injury pain. Inappropriate, spontaneous firing in pain receptors has also been implicated as a cause of dysesthesia.[citation needed] People with dysesthesia can become incapacitated with pain, despite no apparent damage to the skin or other tissue. Dysesthesia patients also often have psychological disorders. from katrinesackett32463 information look under google fastest way to find and in wiki also date april 2019 Contents • Types • Presentation • Causes • Diagnosis o Differential diagnosis • Treatment • Research o Studies • See also • References • Further reading TypesEdit Dysesthesia can generally be described as a class of neurological disorders. It can be further classified depending on where it manifests in the body, and by the type of sensation that it provokes. Cutaneous dysesthesia is characterized by discomfort or pain from touch to the skin by normal stimuli, including clothing. The unpleasantness can range from a mild tingling to blunt, incapacitating pain. Scalp dysesthesia is characterized by pain or burning sensations on or under the surface of the cranial skin. Scalp dysesthesia may also present as excessive itching of the scalp. Occlusal dysesthesia, or "phantom bite," is characterized by the feeling that the bite is "out of place" (occlusal dystopia) despite any apparent damage or instability to dental or oromaxillofacial structures or tissue. Phantom bite often presents in patients that have undergone otherwise routine dental procedures. Short of compassionate counseling, evidence for effective treatment regimes is lacking. PresentationEdit A person with dysesthesia can find it to be unbearable at times. Dysesthetic burning has been called "Dante-esque" pain.[by whom?] The terminology used to describe it is usually interchangeable with descriptions of Hell in classic literature. It is the "bluntest" pain of which the human body is capable, and is characterized by the absence of accurate discriminative information.[citation needed] Temperature change and heat both affect the sensation and raise the level of the steady pain. This pain upgrades with tonic light touch, phasic rubbing, or rough textures to become evoked pain. The patient often cannot endure the touch of clothing. His or her entire life becomes an exercise in avoiding evoked pain. It causes difficulty in obtaining rest because bed-clothing contacts the skin. It drives the patient to a hysterical search for relief of the pain, which ends in some degree of resignation and frequent depression. Patients indicate that it has robbed them of their identity, since their values and mental priorities are so consumed by its avoidance.[2] Chronic anxiety is often associated with dysesthesia.[3] Patients with this anxiety may experience numbness or tingling in the face. In one study, those patients that were examined psychologically had symptoms of anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, or somatoform disorder.[4] CausesEdit • Dysesthesia is commonly seen in diabetic patients, and can be relieved by using creams containing capsaicin. • Dysesthesia may be seen in patients with Guillain–Barré syndrome. • Dysesthesia is among symptoms of neuropathy (along with paresthesias, gait disturbance, weakness, and absent DTRs). • Dysesthesia, along with polyneuropathy can be a symptom of nerve damage caused by Lyme Disease.[5] The dysesthetic sensations continue after the successful antibiotic treatment of Lyme disease. • Dysesthesia is a common symptom of a withdrawal from alcohol or other drugs. • Dysesthesia is also a common symptom of multiple sclerosis. It is an effect of spinal cord injury.[6] • Many patients with occlusal dysesthesia have reported recent oral surgery before the onset of dysesthetic pain.[4] • Late-onset GM2 gangliosidosis may also present as burning dysesthesia.[7] • Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is a progressive, enduring and often irreversible tingling numbness, intense pain, and hypersensitivity to cold, beginning in the hands and feet and sometimes involving the arms and legs caused by some chemotherapy agents.[8] • Dysesthesia may be caused by a thalamic stroke involving the ventral postero-lateral (VPL) nucleus. It's typically seen in Dejerine-Roussy syndrome with hemi-sensory loss and severe dysesthesia of the affected area. DiagnosisEdit Differential diagnosisEdit Although dysesthesia is similar to phantom limb syndrome, they should not be confused. In phantom limb, the sensation is present in an amputated or absent limb, while dysesthesia refers to discomfort or pain in a tissue that has not been removed or amputated. The dysesthetic tissue may also not be part of a limb, but part of the body, such as the abdomen. The majority of individuals with both phantom limb and dysesthesia experience painful sensations. Phantom pain refers to dysesthetic feelings in individuals who are paralyzed or who were born without limbs. It is caused by the improper innervation of the missing limbs by the nerves that would normally innervate the limb. Dysesthesia is caused by damage to the nerves themselves, rather than by an innervation of absent tissue. Dysesthesia should not be confused with anesthesia or hypoesthesia, which refer to a loss of sensation, or paresthesia which refers to a distorted sensation. Dysesthesia is distinct in that it can, but not necessarily, refer to spontaneous sensations in the absence of stimuli. In the case of an evoked dysesthetic sensation, such as by the touch of clothing, the sensation is characterized not simply by an exaggeration of the feeling, but rather by a completely inappropriate sensation such as burning. TreatmentEdit Daily oral muscle physical therapy, or the administration of antidepressants have been reported as effective therapy for occlusal dysesthesia patients.[4] Tooth grinding, and the replacement or removal of all dental work should be avoided in patients with occlusal dysesthesia,[4] despite the frequent requests for further surgery often made by these patients. Antidepressants are also often prescribed for scalp dysesthesia. Prakash et al. found that many patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS), one variant of occlusal dysesthesia, also report painful sensations in other parts of the body. Many of the patients with BMS met the classification of restless leg syndrome (RLS). About half of these patients also had a family history of RLS. These results suggest that some BMS symptoms may be caused by the same pathway as RLS in some patients, indicating that dopaminergic drugs regularly used to treat RLS may be effective in treating BMS as well. ResearchEdit There are a number of hypotheses regarding the basis of occlusal dysesthesia. Some researchers believe the disorder is a psychological one, while others believe it to be a psychosomatic disorder.[4] Joseph Marbach hypothesized that the symptoms were rooted in psychiatric disorders. Marbach suggested that occlusal dysesthesia would occur in patients with underlying psychological problems (such as schizophrenia) after having undergone dental treatment. More recently, two studies have found that occlusal dysesthesia is associated with somatoform disorders in which the patients obsess over the oral sensations. Similarly, Marbach later proposed that occlusal dysesthesia may be caused by the brain “talking to itself,” causing abnormal oral sensations in the absence of external stimuli. According to this model, the symptoms of dysesthesia are catalyzed by dental “amputation,” for example the extraction of a tooth, whereby the brain loses the ability to distinguish between its memory of the bite and the actual, new bite. The patient, unable to recognize his or her own bite, becomes especially attentive to these perceived oral discrepancies. Finally and most recently, Greene and Gelb suggested that instead of having a psychological root, dysesthesia may be caused by a false signal being sent from the peripheral nervous system to the central nervous system. However, the reviewers note that no method exists for determining sensor nerve thresholds, and so sensory perception in the mouth is often measured by interdental thickness discrimination (ITD), or the ability to differentiate between the sizes of objects (thin blocks) placed between teeth. In one study, occlusal dysesthesia patients showed greater ability to differentiate these thicknesses than control, healthy individuals, but these differences were not statistically significant. StudiesEdit • Bennett et al. produced an artificial peripheral mononeuropathy in rats by surgically constricting the sciatic nerve.[9] These rats showed an increased response to noxious radiant heat, were nocifensive when placed on a cold metal floor, protected their hind paws, and had suppressed appetite. Additionally, the paws of many of these rats were inappropriately warm or cool to the touch, and many of the rats overgrew claws on the affected paws as well. These results indicate that the rats exhibited hyperalgesia, allodynia, and dysesthesia. • In a study in which researchers cut spinal nerves in rats, researchers found these rats exhibited a longer duration in spontaneous foot lifting, hypersensitivity to mechanical stimuli, allodynia, and hyperalgesia.[10] Additionally, the receptive field neurons in this nerve pathway showed spontaneous firing in low-threshold nociceptors, suggesting that nerve damage can cause dysesthesia. • In women with chronic pain or itchy scalps without any apparent physical cause, about half had from psychiatric disorders. For the majority of these women, their symptoms of scalp dysesthesia were alleviated or removed by treatment with low doses of antidepressants.[11] • Landerholm et al. hypothesized that dynamic mechanical allodynia (DMA) might be the hyperbole of dynamic mechanical dysesthesia (DMD), mediated by peripheral nerves. When the researchers artificially blocked nerves in patients with peripheral neuropthic pain or central post-stroke pain, DMA symptoms in many of the patients transitioned into DMD symptoms. Additionally, the researchers determined that the number of mechanocreceptive fibers associated with the nociceptive system was responsible for the differentiation of DMA to DMD.[12] • Ochoa et al. recorded intraneural signals in subjects with post-ischaemic paraesthesiae. The researchers found the signals to be spontaneous. The frequency of the signals paralleled the intensity and timing of the paresthetic sensations reported by the patients. These results suggest that paresthetic sensations are the result of inappropriate firing frequency and timing by impulses from sensory cells.[13] • Tuskiyama et al. assessed occlusal dysesthesia patients using an interdental thickness discrimination test and a psychological examination. The researchers found that occlusal dysesthesia patients could not discriminate the thickness of material in their bite any better than normal dental patients, but that the occlusal dysesthesia patients were significantly more likely to exhibit psychological disorders.[14] See alsoEdit • Paresthesia • Scalp dysesthesia ReferencesEdit 1. ^ a b c IASP Pain Terminology Archived 2008-05-12 at the Wayback Machine. 2. ^ "Dysesthetic Burning - Pain Online". painonline.org. 3. ^ "How to Stop Chronic Anxiety From Dysesthesia". www.calmclinic.com (link is external). 4. ^ a b c d e Hara, E. S., Matsuka, Y., Minakuchi, H., Clark, G. T., & Kuboki, T. (2012). Occlusal dysesthesia: a qualitative systematic review of the epidemiology, aetiology and management. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 39(8): 630-638. [1] 5. ^ Klempner, M. S., Hu, L. T., Evans, J., Schmid, C. H., Johnson, G. M., Trevino, R. P., . . . Weinstein, A. (2001). Two controlled trials of antibiotic treatment in patients with persistent symptoms and a history of Lyme disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 345(2), 85-92. 6. ^ "Understandng Dysesthesia in Multiple Sclerosis". about.com. 7. ^ Chow, G. C. S., Clarke, J. T. R., & Banwell, B. L. (2001). Late-onset GM2 gangliosidosis presenting as burning dysesthesias. Pediatric Neurology, 25(1). 8. ^ del Pino BM. Chemotherapy-induced Peripheral Neuropathy. NCI Cancer Bulletin. Feb 23, 2010 [archived 2011-12-11];7(4):6. 9. ^ Bennett, G. J., & Xie, Y. K. (1988). A PERIPHERAL MONONEUROPATHY IN RAT THAT PRODUCES DISORDERS OF PAIN SENSATION LIKE THOSE SEEN IN MAN. Pain, 33(1). 10. ^ Djouhri, L., Fang, X., Koutsikou, S., & Lawson, S. N. (2012). Partial nerve injury induces electrophysiological changes in conducting (uninjured) nociceptive and nonnociceptive DRG neurons: Possible relationships to aspects of peripheral neuropathic pain and paresthesias. Pain, 153(9). 11. ^ Hoss, D., & Segal, S. (1998). Scalp dysesthesia. Archives of Dermatology, 134(3). doi: 10.1001/archderm.134.3.327 12. ^ Landerholm, A. H., & Hansson, P. T. (2011). Mechanisms of dynamic mechanical allodynia and dysesthesia in patients with peripheral and central neuropathic pain. European Journal of Pain, 15(5). 13. ^ Ochoa, J. L., & Torebjork, H. E. (1980). PARAESTHESIAE FROM ECTOPIC IMPULSE GENERATION IN HUMAN SENSORY NERVES. Brain, 103(DEC). 14. ^ Tsukiyama, Y., Yamada, A., Kuwatsuru, R., & Koyano, K. (2012). Bio-psycho-social assessment of occlusal dysaesthesia patients. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 39(8). Further readingEdit • Gale Encyclopedia of Neurological Disorders< img src="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:CentralAutoLogin/start?type=1x1&amp;mobile=1" alt="" title="" width="1" height="1" style="border: none; position: absolute;" /> Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dysesthesia&oldid=888042087" (link is external) Last edited 1 month ago by Ozzie10aaaa Related articles • Paresthesia • Small fiber peripheral neuropathy • Scalp dysesthesia

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