somalt maltitol syrup sugar Alcohols☆ A. Rapaille, ... M. Heume, in Encyclopedia of Food and Health, 2016
Gums and Pastilles Maltitol syrups, alone or in combinations with either lactitol or isomalt, are very suitable for the production of gelatin gums. For some compositions, it is necessary to adapt the gelatin type and level and the cooking conditions in order to obtain gum properties equivalent to those obtained with conventional sweetened gums.In pastilles, a gum arabic/polyol ratio of 50/50 on a dry-weight basis is advised. This composition is cooked to 70–72% dry matter content, molded in starch, and dried to 90% dry matter. After demolding, the gums are waxed. Maltitol syrups give good pastilles with optimal shelf life properties.uRL: Sweeteners: Classification, Sensory and Health EffectsA. Das, R. Chakraborty, in Encyclopedia of Food and Health, 2016
Sugar AlcoholsSugar alcohols are neither sugars nor alcohol; it includes lactitol, xylitol, maltitol, polydextrose, mannitol, isomalt, polyols, palatinit, sorbitol, polyol syrups, hydrogenated starch, and hydrolysates. They are used to sweeten foods labeled ‘sugar-free’ or ‘no added sugar.’ Small amounts of sugar alcohols are found naturally in fruits and vegetables. They can also be manufactured. They are only partly absorbed by your body, have fewer calories than sugar, and have no major effect on blood glucose. Consumption of more than 10 g of sugar alcohols a day can cause side effects such as gas, bloating, and diarrhea.
View chapterPurchase book Read full chapter URL: Basics: Sugars, Starches and Fibers in Foods and HealthJacqueline B. Marcus MS, RD, LD, CNS, FADA, in Culinary Nutrition, 2013 Sugar Alcohols A sugar alcohol is a sugar with an alcohol group attached to it. They include erythritol, lactitol, maltitol, mannitol, sorbitol and xylitol—identified by their “ol” suffix. Sugar alcohols are reduced-calorie sweeteners. They are not as sweet as white sugar and they have fewer calories. On the average, sugar alcohols provide about one-half of the calories of white sugar. Sugar alcohols are poorly absorbed into the bloodstream from the small intestine, so they only cause a small change in blood sugar. This is meaningful to diabetics. Foods and beverages with sugar alcohols should be taken into account when estimating the total amount of carbohydrates in a diabetic diet. The American Diabetes Association offers guidelines [17]. Due to their poor absorption, if too many sugar alcohols are ingested, they can lead to gas or diarrhea. This may be the case if sugar alcohols are overconsumed in beverages and sweets. Sugar alcohols are not broken down by the bacteria in the mouth, so they do not lead to dental cavities. That is why chewing sugarless gum actually prevents teeth from decay, and due to the chemical structure of sugar alcohols, they actually leave the mouth feeling cool! Besides chewing gum, sugar alcohols are found in some candies, cookies, ice cream and puddings. Sugar alcohols do not brown, nor do they caramelize when heated, so they have limited value to cooks. In food product development, sugar alcohols are sometimes used to mask the bitter aftertaste of other sweeteners. View chapterPurchase book Read full chapter URL:
EMULSIFIERS | Organic EmulsifiersT. Kinyanjui, ... S. Mahungu, in Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), 2003Miscellaneous DerivativesFatty acids can be esterified directly to compounds other than glycerol, for example, sugar alcohols like sorbitol, mannitol, and maltitol, and sugars like sucrose, glucose, fructose, lactose, and maltose.Sorbitol or sorbitan esters are formed from 1,4-anhydro-sorbitol and fatty acids (see Figure 8). Typically, the emulsifier consists of a mixture of stearic and palmitic acid esters of sorbitol and its mono- and dianhydrides. Ethoxylated derivatives can also be prepared by the addition of several moles of ethylene oxide to the sorbitan monoglycerol ester and, depending on the number of moles of ethylene oxide added, have a wide range in HLB. Sign in to download full-size image Figure 8. Sorbitan stearate, where R represents a fatty acid moiety, for example, stearic acid, oleic acid, lauric acid, or palmitic acid. Lactitol (the hydrogenation product of lactose) palmitate is synthesized by direct esterification at a temperature of approximately 160 °C. Workers have reported the enzymatic synthesis of acetylated glucose fatty acid esters. Two immobilized lipases from Candida antarctica (SP 382) and Candida cylindraceae catalyzed the synthesis of novel acetylated glucose fatty acid esters with glucose pentaacetate and Trisun 80 (80% oleic) vegetable oil or methyl oleate as substrates in organic solvents. The incorporation of oleic acid on to the glucose ranged from 30 to 100%. It was possible to catalyze the synthesis of glucose fatty acid esters with free glucose as the sugar substrate. Other researchers have reported the synthesis of a novel nonionic surfactant, dialkyl glucosylglutamate from δ-gluconolactone, glutamic acid and alkyl alcohols. Sucrose fatty acid esters (Figure 9) can be synthesized using a variety of solvents or by direct esterification. The first description of a practical commercial process for the preparation of sucrose esters of fatty acids was reported in 1956. Enzymatic synthesis of carbohydrate esters of fatty acids has also been reported for the esters of sucrose, glucose, fructose, and sorbitol with oleic and stearic acid and fructofuranose. The reports by researchers indicate the enzymatic preparation of three different 1,6-diacyl fructofuranoses. At low temperatures (5 °C), the synthesis produces quantitative yields of the diesters by simple addition of the original sugar to a solution of the fatty acid in a solvent (acetone), which is accepted by the European Commission (EC) for use in the manufacture of additives. By varying the degree of esterification, the HLB and, hence, the functionality can be controlled. Sucrose monoesters have an HLB value greater than 16 while the triesters have an HLB value less than 1. Monoesters are particularly useful for the stabilization of o/w emulsions, whereas diesters are best for w/o emulsions. With esterification equal to or greater than 5 moles of fatty acid per mole of sucrose, the emulsification properties of sucrose fatty acid esters are lost. But, at that degree of esterification, the sucrose fatty acid polyester can be used as a low-calorie fat replacement since it is neither digestible nor absorbable.
Sign in to download full-size imageFigure 9. Sucrose fatty acid esters, where at least one of either R1, R2, or R3 represents a fatty acid, and the remainder may represent a fatty acid or a hydrogen; the degree of substitution is 1–3.The consistency of both o/w and w/o emulsions can be affected with the addition of ethylene or propyleneglycol monostearate. The most common ethylene and propylene glycol esters used as emulsifiers are the monostearate and monopalmitate.View chapterPurchase bookRead full chapter
URL: Digestion, Absorption, and FiberG. Livesey, in Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences, 2014PolyolsPolyols are produced by hydrogenation of carbohydrates: sorbitol from glucose, erythritol from erythrose (a tetrose), xylitol from xylose (a pentose), sorbitol from glucose, maltitol from maltose, mannitol from mannose, isomalt from isomaltulose, lactitol from lactose, polyglycitol from starch hydrolysate, and (convenient to consider here) hydrogenated polydextrose from randomly bonded glucose (polydextrose). Of these, sorbitol is present naturally in low amounts in some fruits (e.g., apples and pears).These carbohydrates were introduced to foods as low-glycemic, sugar-free, reduced-energy carbohydrates. Particularly those derived from monosaccharides and disaccharides have low cariogenic potential. When not eaten to excess, they are well tolerated. Excessive consumption leads to abdominal discomfort and watery stools. For reasons that are unclear, tolerance varies between individuals and depends on the duration and level of prior consumption (Livesey, 2001).Because of their low molecular size, polyols derived from monosaccharides are partially absorbed by diffusion – these include erythritol, xylitol, and sorbitol (also called d-glucitol).Polyols derived from disaccharides are too large to be absorbed by diffusion except in minor amounts (<2%). Lactitol (4-o-α-d-galactopyranosyl-d-glucitol) is indigestible, so >98% is hydrolyzed by microbial enzymes in the large intestine to galactose and glucitol (sorbitol) prior to fermentation. Maltitol (4-o-α-d-glucopyranosyl-d-glucitol), by contrast, is partially hydrolyzed by MAG and SIM to d-glucose and glucitol (sorbitol), for which glucose can be actively or passively absorbed (cf. Figure 4), while sorbitol is absorbed only by passive diffusion. However, the major part of maltitol escapes digestion or absorption, and so becomes fermented (Table 1).The polyol isomalt is a mixed-disaccharide alcohol comprising similar amounts of α1,6-GPS and α1,1-GPM; GPS is 6-o-α-d-glucopyranosido-d-sorbitol, while GPM is 1-o-α-d-glucopyranosido-d-mannitol dihydrate. Some hydrolysis occurs in the small intestine, but most (approx. 90%) escapes digestion and is fermented in the large intestine after first being hydrolyzed by microbial enzymes to glucose, sorbitol, and mannitol.higher molecular weight polyols arise on hydrogenation of starch hydrolysates (maltitol syrups and polyglucitol) and a synthetic nonstarch polysaccharide (hydrogenated polydextrose). Substantial digestion and higher glycemic responses arise from those polyols prepared from starch hydrolysates because only one glucose unit per molecule can be hydrogenated.View chapterPurchase bookRead full chapterURL:
Diet and Irritable Bowel Syndrome, with a Focus on Appetite-Regulating Gut Hormones
Magdy El-Salhy, ... Trygve Hausken, in Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Abdominal Obesity, 2014
Poorly Absorbed Carbohydrates and FibersFODMAPs are short-chain carbohydrates that are poorly absorbed, and a significant portion of these ingested carbohydrates enter the distal small bowel and colon [103]. These sugars include fructose, lactose, sugar alcohols (sorbitol, maltitol, mannitol, xylitol, and isomalt), fructans, and galactans. Fructose and lactose are present in apples, pears, watermelon, honey, fruit juices, dried fruits, and milk and milk products. Polyols are used in low-calorie food products. Galactans and fructans are present in wheat, rye, artichokes, asparagus, broccoli and Brussels sprouts, cabbage, garlic, leeks, onions, legumes, lentils, and soy [90,91,104].FODMAPs increase the osmotic pressure within the large intestine and provide a substrate for bacteria fermentation, leading to gas production and distension of the large intestine. An increase in the intraluminal pressure can stimulate the release of serotonin and substance P into the interstitial fluid. Serotonin activates the submucosal sensory branch of the enteric nervous system (ENS), which conveys the sensation to the central nervous system (CNS), probably causing abdominal pain and discomfort [105–107]. Furthermore, serotonin controls gastrointestinal motility and chloride secretion via interneurons and motor neurons, which may result in motility and secretion disturbances [105–107]. Although increasing dietary fiber intake is still recommended for patients with IBS, especially those with IBS-C, clinical practice shows that this increases abdominal pain, bloating, and distension [108]. However, it has been shown that soluble fiber intake is effective in improving overall IBS symptoms and has fewer side effects than insoluble fiber [44–46,109–111].The fermentation of FODMAPs and insoluble fiber to produce gas and intraluminal distention depends upon the composition of the intestinal flora. A dominance of Clostridium spp. in the intestinal flora over beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium spp., which do not produce gas upon fermenting carbohydrates, would worsen the IBS symptoms [1]. On the other hand, consuming foods supplemented with probiotics that contain these latter bacteria would increase tolerance to both FODMAPs and fiber [1].View chapterPurchase bookRead full chapterURL:
Food Additives: Classification, Uses and RegulationG.A. Blekas, in Encyclopedia of Food and Health, 2016
SweetenersThese natural or synthetic substances, which are mainly used in products with no added sugar or in energy-reduced edible products to imprint a sweet sensation, are classified into nutritive or nonnutritive sweeteners. Sugar alcohols, such as erythritol, isomaltitol, lactitol, maltitol, mannitol, sorbitol, and xylitol, are utilized as nutritive sweeteners. The most commonly used nonnutritive sweeteners are artificial substances, mainly acesulfame potassium, aspartame, aspartame–acesulfame salt, cyclamic acid and cyclamic acid salts, saccharin and its salts (saccharins), sucralose, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, and neotame. Other nonnutritive sweeteners used in foods are also steviol glycosides and thaumatin, substances that are isolated from natural sources. Two or more nonnutritive sweeteners are often used in combination for a synergistic intensification of sweetness or for the elimination of their side or posttaste effects. Sugar alcohols are used as sugar substitutes in food commodities suitable for diabetics because their metabolism is insulin-independent. These substances, with the exception of xylitol, are less sweet than sugar and have a low-calorie value varying between 0.2 kcal g− 1 (erythritol) and 3.0 mg kg− 1 (maltitol). They are used for sweetening purposes, at levels in accordance with GMP, in dietary foods, food supplements, and sugar-free or low-calorie foods, such as candies and other confections, cereal-based products and breakfast cereals, chewing gum, chocolate and cocoa products, desserts, edible ices, fine bakery wares, jams, jellies, marmalades, mustard, and sauces.Nonnutritive sweeteners are added in foods at low or very low levels because they are 30–3000 times sweeter than saccharose. These substances have a taste profile that differs slightly from that of saccharose. They are often used in combination with low-calorie bulking agents. Their use, at levels varying between 5 and 6000 mg kg− 1 or mg l− 1, is permitted in the same food products where sugar alcohols are used and also in other sugar-free or low-calorie foods, such as alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages (alcohol-free beer, flavored drinks, fruit and vegetable nectars, mixtures of alcoholic drinks, and spirits with less than 15% alcohol, etc.); broths; potato-, cereal-, flour-, or starch-based snacks; processed nuts; salads; sandwich spreads; soups; several fruit and vegetable products; and sweet–sour preserves and semipreserves of fish or fishery products. Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, neotame, and thaumatin are used as flavor enhancers, at levels not exceeding 5.0, 2.0, and 0.5 mg kg− 1, respectively, in some food commodities and food supplements. View chapterPurchase bookRead full chapterURL:
Inhibition of Aggregation of Mutant Huntingtin by Nucleic Acid Aptamers In Vitro and in a Yeast Model of Huntington’s DiseaseRajeev K. Chaudhary, ... Ipsita Roy, in Gene Therapy in Neurological Disorders, 201810.3.1 Small Molecules and AntibodiesSmall molecules like Congo Red, suberoylanilidehydroxamic acid, cystamine, rapamycin, lithium, amiloride, rifampicin, melatonin, gossypol, proline, trimethylamine N-oxide, Thioflavin S, Thioflavin T, and different saccharides like glucose, trehalose, sucrose, cellobiose, maltitol, turanose, dextran, mannose, etc. have been evaluated. These either stabilize the native conformation of the mutant huntingtin protein and inhibit its aggregation or enhance its clearance from the system (Borwankar et al., 2011; Chaudhary, Kardani, Singh, Banerjee, & Roy, 2014; Heiser et al., 2000; Sarkar et al., 2008; Tanaka et al., 2004; Wong et al., 2008). The downstream cellular defects can also be targeted to alleviate the pathology of the disease. Various candidate molecules have been used to improve mitochondrial dysfunction or to reduce excitotoxicity, e.g., creatine, α-lipoic acid, coenzyme Q10, clioquinol, memantine, etc. (Andreassen, Ferrante, Dedeoglu, & Beal, 2001; Ferrante et al., 2002; Nguyen, Hamby, & Massa, 2005; Schiefer et al., 2002). As mutant huntingtin triggers the apoptosis pathway, antiapoptotic drugs, e.g., minocycline, can be used to protect the neurons from cell death (Wang et al., 2003). Some of the small molecules and antibodies studied for the treatment of HD are listed in Table 10.1. Table 10.1. Effect of Small Molecules and Antibodies in HD
Molecule Effect Creatine Decreases the formation of intranuclear aggregates, retards the progression of pathology, and delays mortality, presumably by buffering intracellular energy levels and compensating for mitochondrial dysfunction Rapamycin and its analog CCI-779 Improves motor deficits and decreases aggregate formation by inducing autophagy through inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity. Cystamine, a transglutaminase inhibitor Decreases aggregate formation, reduces associated tremor, and improves motor performance. Congo red Delays disease progression, ameliorates motor impairment, and increases survival by inhibiting oligomerization of huntingtin. Trehalose Oral administration reduces weight loss, ameliorates striatal atrophy, and inhibits the formation of truncated huntingtin aggregates in the cerebrum and liver by more than 30%. Geldanamycin Activates heat shock response, induces the expression of Hsp40 and Hsp70, and inhibits huntingtin-exon 1 protein aggregation in a dose-dependent manner in mammalian cell culture. C2–8, N-(4-bromophenyl)-3-{[(4- bromophenyl) amino] sulphonyl} benzamide
Potently inhibits polyQ aggregation in brain slice cultures, cell-based models, and Drosophila.
2-Amino-4,7-dimethylbenzothiazol-6-ol, a chemical compound similar to riluzole
Significantly inhibits HD exon 1 aggregation in vivo. Antibody 1C2, which selectively recognizes elongated polyQ chains Selectively binds with elongated polyQ chains and inhibits aggregation of mutant huntingtin protein. It recognizes the conformation of an elongated polyQ tract in soluble proteins in vitro but not the array of glutamine residues in insoluble protein aggregates with fibrillar morphology. C4 sFv intrabody
Slows down aggregation of huntingtin in brain cells, reduces neurodegeneration and increases the survival time of Drosophila model of HD harboring exon-1 encoded huntingtin containing 93Q stretch.
scFv MW7, a monoclonal antihuntingtin antibody Recognizes polyP domain and inhibits aggregation as well as cell death induced by mutant huntingtin Happ1 Binds to the PRR (proline (P)-rich region consisting of two polyP stretches separated by a P-rich domain) and decreases toxicity and aggregation, resulting in significant improvement in motor and cognitive functions and prolonged lifespan of N171-82Q mice. scFv EM48 intrabody Inhibits the formation of neuropil aggregates and occurrence of neurological symptoms in N171-82Q mice model. View chapterPurchase bookRead full chapterURL:
Candies and Sweets: Sugar and Chocolate ConfectioneryM.A. Godshall, in Encyclopedia of Food and Health, 2016 Sugar-Free Candies: Sugar AlcoholsCandies labeled ‘sugar-free’ contain sugar alcohols or artificial sweeteners or a combination of both. Sugar alcohols, also known as polyols, are carbohydrates, but they are not sugars. Sugar alcohols include erythritol, xylitol, glycerol (glycerin),hydrogenatedstarch hydrolysates (HSH; polyglycitol), isomalt (isomaltitol), lactitol, maltitol, mannitol, and sorbitol. Xylitol is about as sweet as sucrose and maltitol about 90% as sweet. The other sugar alcohols are 40–60% as sweet as sucrose. Some sugar alcohols – xylitol, erythritol, and mannitol – have a pronounced cooling effect, similar to mint. Isomalt and maltitol have a less cooling effect. Sugar alcohols are noncariogenic (do not promote tooth decay). They contain 2–3 calories per gram. Erythritol has only 0.2 cal g− 1. They do not raise blood glucose, so they are suitable for diabetics. However, they have a laxative effect if consumed in excess. View chapterPurchase bookRead full chapter URL:
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Lithia Spring Water bottle, 1888
Lithia water is defined as a type of mineral water characterized by the presence of lithium salts (as lithium carbonate or lithium chloride).[1] Natural lithia mineral spring waters are rare, and there are few commercially bottled lithia water products.
Between the 1880s and World War I, the consumption of bottled lithia mineral water was popular.[2] One of the first commercially sold lithia waters in the United States was bottled at Lithia Springs, Georgia, in 1888.[3] During this era, there was such a demand for lithia water that there was a proliferation of bottled lithia water products. However, only a few were natural lithia spring waters. Most of the bottled lithia water brands added lithium bicarbonate to spring water and called it lithia water. With the start of World War I and the formation of the new US government food safety agency, mineral water bottlers were under scrutiny. The new agency posted large fines against mineral water bottlers for mislabeled, misrepresented and adulterated products.[4] These government actions and their publicity, along with public works that made clean tap water readily accessible, caused the American public to lose confidence and interest in bottled mineral water.[4]
Lithia water contains various lithium salts, including the citrate. An early version of Coca-Cola available in pharmacies' soda fountains called Lithia Coke was a mixture of Coca-Cola syrup and Bowden lithia spring water. The soft drink 7Up was named "Bib-Label Lithiated Lemon-Lime Soda" when it was formulated in 1929 because it contained lithium citrate. The beverage was a patent medicine marketed as a cure for hangover. Lithium citrate was removed from 7Up in 1948.[5]
Notable brands[edit]
Lithia Spring Water, a brand of bottled natural lithia water sourced from Lithia Springs, Georgia, USA, since 1888
Londonderry Lithia, a brand of bottled lithia water produced during the late 19th and early 20th centuries
Buffalo Lithia Water, a brand of bottled lithia water sourced from Buffalo Lithia Springs, Virginia
^ "Lithia water" Merriam-Webster Dictionary
^ Loring Bullard (2004), Healing waters: Missouri's historic mineral springs and spas
^ Davis, Fannie Mae Davis (1987). From Indian Trail to Interstate 20, Douglas County History book, USA.
^ Jump up to: a b De Vierville (1992), American Healing Waters
^ Gielen, Marcel; Edward R. T. Tiekink (2005). Metallotherapeutic drugs and metal-based diagnostic agents: The use of metals in medicine. John Wiley and Sons. p. 3. ISBN 0-470-86403-6.
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__________________________________________________________________________Lithia (water brand)
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Lithia Spring Water
LSW Logo TITLE.png
Lithia Springs, GA
Lithia water
pH 7.3 - 8 Bromine (Br) 450 mcg Calcium (Ca) 130 mg Lithium (Li)
500 mcg Magnesium (Mg) 8 mg Potassium (K) 17 mg Sodium (Na)
450 mg TDS 2300 website
All concentrations in milligrams per liter (mg/L); pH without units
Lithia Spring Water (also called Lithia) is an American brand of high mineral content lithia water that naturally contains lithium carbonate. Since 1888 it has been sourced from an ancient native American sacred spring that is part of the Stone Mountain GA geological pluton (granite intrusion) formation. Located at Lithia Springs, Georgia, on the boundary of Cobb and Douglas counties, approximately twelve miles from the city of Atlanta.
Lithia Spring water contains a high ionic-mineral content, as measured by Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) of 2,300 milligrams per liter. It contains the following chemical elements, in amounts of 100 or more micrograms per liter: lithium, calcium, sulfate, magnesium, potassium, silica, and sodium. Owner: Lithia Spring Water, LLC., Lithia Spring Water is sold directly from Historic Lithia Springs and shipped only within the United States.
Contents 1 History 2 Spring Source 3 Product 4 See also 5 References
6 External links History[edit]
Lithia Spring Water 1888 poster Lithia Springs is an ancient Native American Indian medicinal spring. Until 1838 and the Trail of Tears, Lithia Springs was a healing center for the southern Cherokee Nation. The last Cherokee Chief that ruled over the springs was named Ama-Kanasta (Sweetwater) who took his name from the 'sweet water' that flowed from the ancient spring. [1] In 1882 the town of Lithia Springs, Georgia, was named after the natural Lithia water spring. So popular were the spring's medicinal waters that flowed from the spring that people came from long distances for its health benefits. The neighboring city of Austell, Georgia, was also founded due to the spring's popularity. In 1887 Judge Bowden of Atlanta bought the springs with a group of investors and started bottling and selling Bowden Lithia spring water. In 1888 Bowden Lithia Spring Water Co. opened its offices at 131 West 42nd Street New York City.[2] That same year the Sweet Water Hotel, a 300-room luxury health resort, opened in Lithia Springs.[1] The Sweet Water Hotel and its famous Lithia spring water were so popular that Mark Twain, the Vanderbilts, Presidents Cleveland, Taft, McKinley, and Theodore Roosevelt were said to have visited the Resort.[3] The amenities of the resort included a large bottle of Lithia Spring Water delivered to each room and the world-famous Lithia Vapor Baths.[1] In 1887, Bowden Lithia Water won the "Gold Medal Par Excellence" at the Piedmont Exposition in Atlanta.[1] Spring Source[edit]
The American Carlsbad and its Famous Medicinal Waters 1890
The distinctive properties of Lithia Spring Water are attributable to its geological structure and topographic features. The spring source originates from deep within the subterranean earth where water slowly permeates through miles of granite rock fissures, becoming mineralized from contact with blue quartz-bearing granite rock. It emerges from Lithia Springs at a temperature of 14.44 °C (58 °F). The spring water's rare alkaline mineral composition, purity, and high ionic-mineral and naturally occurring Lithium content have seldom varied since it was first bottled and sold in 1888.[4] A unique and rare characteristic of the water's analysis is the total absence of nitrate as it indicates the spring water source is primordial and not fed by the outside earth's watershed. The spring produces very limited quantities, only a few thousand gallons a day.[5] Product[edit]
Lithia Spring Water began to be packed in plastic bottles relatively recently; prior to 1984, it was packed exclusively in glass bottles. Due to breakage, high shipping and handling cost, it was decided that glass was not feasible so plastic bottles were adopted as a means to sell and market the water. In 2017 the company made a decision to abandon plastic bottles for an eco-friendly solution that was non-toxic, recyclable and friendly to the environment. An innovative non-toxic 5-liter eco-friendly spout bag was adopted that allows reduced shipping cost and environmental waste. To guarantee 100% food safety and freshness, the water is drawn directly from its ancient source in small batches to be sanitized. Space-age antimicrobial nano-filtration technology (developed by NASA) and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) sanitation technologies assure all organic and biological contaminants are removed without altering the natural properties of the water. See also[edit] Lithia water Mineral water
Lithia Springs, Georgia Austell, Georgia References[edit]
^ Jump up to: a b Davis, Fannie Mae Davis (1987). From Indian Trail to Interstate 20 , Douglas County History book, USA.
^ Washington, Samuel (1913). Mineral Springs of Georgia, p. 190. Out of Print, USA.
^ Whatley, Robert (1982). I Love You Douglas County, Lithia Springs Historical Press., USA.
^ Bowden Lithia Spring Co. (1890). The American Carlsbad and its Famous Medicinal Waters, p. 22. Out of Print, USA.
^ S. W. Callie, Samuel (1913). Mineral Springs of Georgia, p. 190. Out of Print, USA. External links[edit] Official website
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