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CITIZEN'S GUIDE TO U.S. FEDERAL LAW ON THE EXTRATERRITORIAL SEXUAL EXPLOITATION OF CHILDREN
18 U.S.C. § 2423(d): Travel with intent to engage in illicit sexual conduct
18 U.S.C. § 2423(c): Engaging in illicit sexual conduct in foreign places
18 U.S.C. § 2423(d): Ancillary Offenses
18 U.S.C. §§ 2251(c) and 2260(a): Production of Child Pornography outside the United States
18 U.S.C. § 1591: Sex Trafficking of children by force, fraud, or coercion
18 U.S.C. § 1596: Additional jurisdiction in certain trafficking offenses
Federal law provides “extraterritorial jurisdiction” over certain sex offenses against children. Extraterritorial jurisdiction is the legal authority of the United States to prosecute criminal conduct that took place outside its borders.
Section 2423(c) of Title 18, United States Code, prohibits United States citizens or legal permanent residents from traveling from the United States to a foreign country, and while there, raping or sexually molesting a child or paying a child for sex. Citizens can be punished under this law even if the conduct they engaged in was legal in the country where it occurred. For example, if an individual traveled to a country that had legalized prostitution, and while they were there they paid a child for sex, that individual could still be convicted under this statute. The penalty for this provision is up to 30 years in prison.
Section 2423(b) of Title 18, United States Code, is a similar provision. Section 2423(b) makes it a crime for United States citizens or legal permanent residents to travel from the United States to a foreign country with the intent to engage in illegal sexual conduct with a child such as rape, molestation, or prostitution. The difference between Section 2423(b) and Section 2423(c) is that Section 2423(b) statute requires proof that the defendant had formed his criminal intent at the time he began to travel. The penalty for this offense is also up to 30 years in prison. Finally, Section 2423(d) makes it a crime to be what is known informally as being a “child sex tour operator.” This statute makes it an offense to profit by facilitating the travel of U.S. Citizens or legal permanent residents, knowing that they are traveling for the purpose of engaging in illegal sex with a minor. The penalty for this offense is up to 30 years in prison.
There are also some child pornography laws that apply to conduct overseas. Sections 2251(c) and 2260(a) of Title 18, United States Code both make it a crime for anyone to produce child pornography in foreign countries if they import the child abuse images into the United States, or if they intend to do so. The penalty for a first time offender under these statutes is at least 15 years, up to a maximum of 30 years in prison.
Finally, 18 U.S.C. § 1596 grants extraterritorial jurisdiction over 18 U.S.C. § 1591 (Sex trafficking of children or by force, fraud, or coercion). In this instance, this means that federal prosecutors can investigate and prosecute foreign nationals who commit sex trafficking crimes against children outside the United States. Section 1596 also allows the federal government to investigate and prosecute U.S. nationals and residents who commit child sex trafficking crimes in foreign countries (For more information on 18 U.S.C. § 1591, see Citizen’s Guide to U.S. Federal Law on the Prostitution of Children).
For all of these statutes, a child is considered to be anyone under the age of 18.
FOR MORE INFORMATION
• Extraterritorial Sexual Exploitation of Children
• Citizen’s Guide to U.S. Federal Law on the Prostitution of Children
• The PROTECT Act of 2003
• Report Violations
• FAQs
Updated July 6, 2015
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Home » Criminal Division » About The Criminal Division » Sections/Offices » Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section (CEOS) » Citizen's Guide To U.S. Federal Child Exploitation And Obscenity Laws
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CITIZEN'S GUIDE TO U.S. FEDERAL LAW ON CHILD PORNOGRAPHY
18 U.S.C. § 2251- Sexual Exploitation of Children
(Production of child pornography)
18 U.S.C. § 2251A- Selling and Buying of Children
18 U.S.C. § 2252- Certain activities relating to material involving the sexual exploitation of minors
(Possession, distribution and receipt of child pornography)
18 U.S.C. § 2252A- certain activities relating to material constituting or containing child pornography
18 U.S.C. § 2256- Definitions
18 U.S.C. § 2260- Production of sexually explicit depictions of a minor for importation into the United States
Images of child pornography are not protected under First Amendment rights, and are illegal contraband under federal law. Section 2256 of Title 18, United States Code, defines child pornography as any visual depiction of sexually explicit conduct involving a minor (someone under 18 years of age). Visual depictions include photographs, videos, digital or computer generated images indistinguishable from an actual minor, and images created, adapted, or modified, but appear to depict an identifiable, actual minor. Undeveloped film, undeveloped videotape, and electronically stored data that can be converted into a visual image of child pornography are also deemed illegal visual depictions under federal law.
Notably, the legal definition of sexually explicit conduct does not require that an image depict a child engaging in sexual activity. A picture of a naked child may constitute illegal child pornography if it is sufficiently sexually suggestive. Additionally, the age of consent for sexual activity in a given state is irrelevant; any depiction of a minor under 18 years of age engaging in sexually explicit conduct is illegal.
Federal law prohibits the production, distribution, reception, and possession of an image of child pornography using or affecting any means or facility of interstate or foreign commerce (See 18 U.S.C. § 2251; 18 U.S.C. § 2252; 18 U.S.C. § 2252A). Specifically, Section 2251 makes it illegal to persuade, induce, entice, or coerce a minor to engage in sexually explicit conduct for purposes of producing visual depictions of that conduct. Any individual who attempts or conspires to commit a child pornography offense is also subject to prosecution under federal law.
Federal jurisdiction is implicated if the child pornography offense occurred in interstate or foreign commerce. This includes, for example, using the U.S. Mails or common carriers to transport child pornography across state or international borders. Additionally, federal jurisdiction almost always applies when the Internet is used to commit a child pornography violation. Even if the child pornography image itself did not travel across state or international borders, federal law may be implicated if the materials, such as the computer used to download the image or the CD-ROM used to store the image, originated or previously traveled in interstate or foreign commerce.
In addition, Section 2251A of Title 18, United States Code, specifically prohibits any parent, legal guardian or other person in custody or control of a minor under the age of 18, to buy, sell, or transfer custody of that minor for purposes of producing child pornography.
Lastly, Section 2260 of Title 18, United States Code, prohibits any persons outside of the United States to knowingly produce, receive, transport, ship, or distribute child pornography with intent to import or transmit the visual depiction into the United States.
Any violation of federal child pornography law is a serious crime, and convicted offenders face severe statutory penalties. For example, a first time offender convicted of producing child pornography under 18 U.S.C. § 2251, face fines and a statutory minimum of 15 years to 30 years maximum in prison. A first time offender convicted of transporting child pornography in interstate or foreign commerce under 18 U.S.C. § 2252, faces fines and a statutory minimum of 5 years to 20 years maximum in prison. Convicted offenders may face harsher penalties if the offender has prior convictions or if the child pornography offense occurred in aggravated situations defined as (i) the images are violent, sadistic, or masochistic in nature, (ii) the minor was sexually abused, or (iii) the offender has prior convictions for child sexual exploitation. In these circumstances, a convicted offender may face up to life imprisonment.
It is important to note that an offender can be prosecuted under state child pornography laws in addition to, or instead of, federal law.
FOR MORE INFORMATION
• Child Pornography
• Report Violations
• FAQs
Updated December 12, 2017
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Home » Criminal Division » About The Criminal Division » Sections/Offices » Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section (CEOS) » Citizen's Guide To U.S. Federal Child Exploitation And Obscenity Laws
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o International Parental Kidnapping
o Obscenity
o Prostitution of Children
o Sex Offender Registration
• Additional Resources
• Employment and Internship Opportunities
• FAQs
• Report Violations
CITIZEN'S GUIDE TO U.S. FEDERAL LAW ON INTERNATIONAL PARENTAL KIDNAPPING
18 U.S.C. § 1204– International parental kidnapping
Section 1204 of Title 18, United States Code, makes it a federal crime for a parent to remove or attempt to remove a child from the United States, or retain a child outside the United States with intent to obstruct another parent's custodial rights. A parent who removes a child from the United States in this capacity is subject to federal prosecution, and if convicted, faces fines and imprisonment for up to 3 years.
It is important to distinguish between the prosecution of the parent who kidnapped a child and the return of that child to the United States. Extradition is the legal surrender of an alleged criminal to the jurisdiction of another country. Although the parent who removed the child from the United States is generally eligible for formal extradition because they are charged with a federal crime, the child is a victim of international parental kidnapping and often not eligible for formal extradition. In other words, federal prosecutors may investigate and prosecute the parent, but they typically have no control over the return of the child or custodial decisions affecting that child.
The return of internationally kidnapped children is often settled through negotiation. The U.S. Department of State handles the coordination of efforts with foreign officials and law enforcement agencies to effectuate the return of children to the United States. In some circumstances, the return may be governed by the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Parental Child Abduction (1980). This Convention was established to facilities the return of children abducted into foreign countries. The Convention only applies if both countries involved in the international parental kidnapping situation are signatories to the Convention. The United States is a signatory country.
FOR MORE INFORMATION
• International Parental Kidnapping
• U.S. Department of State- Child Abduction website
• Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Parental Child Abduction(1980)
• Report Violations
• FAQs
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Home » Criminal Division » About The Criminal Division » Sections/Offices » Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section (CEOS) » Citizen's Guide To U.S. Federal Child Exploitation And Obscenity Laws
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CITIZEN'S GUIDE TO U.S. FEDERAL LAW ON CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE
18 U.S.C. § 2241– Aggravated sexual abuse
18 U.S.C. § 2242– Sexual abuse
18 U.S.C. § 2243– Sexual abuse of a minor or ward
18 U.S.C. § 2244– Abusive sexual contact
Except in limited circumstances, federal laws typically do not apply to child sexual abuse matters that takes place wholly inside a single state. These matters are therefore generally handled by state or local authorities and prosecuted under state laws. However, if the sexual abuse of a child occurred on federal lands, the offense may be prosecuted under federal law. Federal lands include areas such as military bases, Indian territories, and other government– owned lands or properties (See 18 U.S.C. §7).
Under federal law, offenders convicted of sexually abusing a child face fines and imprisonment. Furthermore, an offender may face harsher penalties if the crime occurred in aggravated circumstances, which include, for example, the offender used force or threats, inflicted serious bodily injury or death, or kidnapped a child in the process of committing child sexual abuse.
FOR MORE INFORMATION
• Report Violations
Updated July 6, 2015
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CITIZEN'S GUIDE TO U.S. FEDERAL LAW ON OBSCENITY
18 U.S.C. § 1460- Possession with intent to sell, and sale, of obscene matter on Federal property
18 U.S.C. § 1461- Mailing obscene or crime-inciting matter
18 U.S.C. § 1462- Importation or transportation of obscene matters
18 U.S.C. § 1463- Mailing indecent matter on wrappers or envelopes
18 U.S.C. § 1464- Broadcasting obscene language
18 U.S.C. § 1465- Transportation of obscene matters for sale or distribution
18 U.S.C. § 1466- Engaging in the business of selling or transferring obscene matter
18 U.S.C. § 1466A- Obscene visual representations of the sexual abuse of children
18 U.S.C. § 1467- Criminal forfeiture
18 U.S.C. § 1468- Distributing obscene material by cable or subscription television
18 U.S.C. § 1469- Presumptions
18 U.S.C. § 1470- Transfer of obscene material to minors
18 U.S.C. § 2252B Misleading domain names on the Internet
18 U.S.C. § 2252C Misleading words or digital images on the Internet
The U.S. Supreme Court established the test that judges and juries use to determine whether matter is obscene in three major cases: Miller v. California, 413 U.S. 15, 24-25 (1973); Smith v. United States, 431 U.S. 291, 300-02, 309 (1977); and Pope v. Illinois, 481 U.S. 497, 500-01 (1987). The three-pronged Miller test is as follows:
1. Whether the average person, applying contemporary adult community standards, finds that the matter, taken as a whole, appeals to prurient interests (i.e., an erotic, lascivious, abnormal, unhealthy, degrading, shameful, or morbid interest in nudity, sex, or excretion);
2. Whether the average person, applying contemporary adult community standards, finds that the matter depicts or describes sexual conduct in a patently offensive way (i.e., ultimate sexual acts, normal or perverted, actual or simulated, masturbation, excretory functions, lewd exhibition of the genitals, or sado-masochistic sexual abuse); and
3. Whether a reasonable person finds that the matter, taken as a whole, lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.
Any material that satisfies this three-pronged test may be found obscene.
Federal law prohibits the possession with intent to sell or distribute obscenity, to send, ship, or receive obscenity, to import obscenity, and to transport obscenity across state boarders for purposes of distribution. Although the law does not criminalize the private possession of obscene matter, the act of receiving such matter could violate the statutes prohibiting the use of the U.S. Mails, common carriers, or interactive computer services for the purpose of transportation (See 18 U.S.C. § 1460; 18 U.S.C. § 1461; 18 U.S.C. § 1462; 18 U.S.C. § 1463). Convicted offenders face fines and imprisonment. It is also illegal to aid or abet in the commission of these crimes, and individuals who commit such acts are also punishable under federal obscenity laws.
In addition, federal law prohibits both the production of obscene matter with intent to sell or distribute, and engaging in a business of selling or transferring obscene matter using or affecting means or facility of interstate or foreign commerce, including the use of interactive computer services. (See 18 U.S.C. § 1465; 18 U.S.C. § 1466). For example, it is illegal to sell and distribute obscene material on the Internet. Convicted offenders face fines and up to 5 years in prison.
Moreover, Sections 1464 and 1468 of Title 18, United States Code, specifically prohibit the broadcast or distribution of obscene matter by radio communication or by cable or subscription television respectively. Convicted offenders under these statutes face fines and up to 2 years in prison.
Obscenity Involving Minors
Federal statutes specifically prohibit obscenity involving minors, and convicted offenders generally face harsher statutory penalties than if the offense involved only adults.
Section 1470 of Title 18, United States Code, prohibits any individual from knowingly transferring or attempting to transfer obscene matter using the U.S. mail or any means or facility of interstate or foreign commerce to a minor under 16 years of age. Convicted offenders face fines and imprisonment for up to 10 years.
In addition, Section 1466A of Title 18, United State Code, makes it illegal for any person to knowingly produce, distribute, receive, or possess with intent to transfer or distribute visual representations, such as drawings, cartoons, or paintings that appear to depict minors engaged in sexually explicit conduct and are deemed obscene. This statute offers an alternative 2-pronged test for obscenity with a lower threshold than the Miller test. The matter involving minors can be deemed obscene if it (i) depicts an image that is, or appears to be a minor engaged in graphic bestiality, sadistic or masochistic abuse, or sexual intercourse and (ii) if the image lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value. A first time offender convicted under this statute faces fines and at least 5 years to a maximum of 20 years in prison.
There are also laws to protect children from obscene or harmful material on the Internet. For one, federal law prohibits the use of misleading domain names, words, or digital images on the Internet with intent to deceive a minor into viewing harmful or obscene material (See 18 U.S.C. §§ 2252B, 2252C). It is illegal for an individual to knowingly use interactive computer services to display obscenity in a manner that makes it available to a minor less than 18 years of age (See 47 U.S.C. § 223(d) –Communications Decency Act of 1996, as amended by the PROTECT Act of 2003). It is also illegal to knowingly make a commercial communication via the Internet that includes obscenity and is available to any minor less than 17 years of age (See 47 U.S.C. § 231 –Child Online Protection Act of 1998).
The standard of what is harmful to minors may differ from the standard applied to adults. Harmful materials for minors include any communication consisting of nudity, sex or excretion that (i) appeals to the prurient interest of minors, (ii) is patently offensive to prevailing standards in the adult community with respect to what is suitable material for minors, (iii) and lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value for minors.
In addition to facing imprisonment and fines, convicted offenders of federal obscenity laws involving minors may also be required to register as sex offenders. Furthermore, in some circumstances, obscenity violations involving minors may also be subject to prosecution under federal child pornography laws, which yield serve statutory penalties (For more information, see Citizen´s Guide to U.S. Federal Child Pornography Laws).
FOR MORE INFORMATION
• Obscenity
• PROTECT Act of 2003
• Child Online Protection Act of 1998
• Report Violations
• FAQs
Updated December 19, 2018
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terrorism combat act
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18 USC 3052: Powers of Federal Bureau of Investigation Text contains those laws in effect on February 9, 2019
From Title 18-CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDUREPART II-CRIMINAL PROCEDURECHAPTER 203-ARREST AND COMMITMENT
Jump To: Source CreditAmendments
§3052. Powers of Federal Bureau of Investigation
The Director, Associate Director, Assistant to the Director, Assistant Directors, inspectors, and agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation of the Department of Justice may carry firearms, serve warrants and subpoenas issued under the authority of the United States and make arrests without warrant for any offense against the United States committed in their presence, or for any felony cognizable under the laws of the United States if they have reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing such felony.
(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 817 ; Jan. 10, 1951, ch. 1221, §1, 64 Stat. 1239 .)
HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES
Based on section 300a of title 5, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees (June 18, 1934, ch. 595, 48 Stat. 1008 ; Mar. 22, 1935, ch. 39, title II, 49 Stat. 77 ).
Language relating to seizures under warrant is in section 3107 of this title.
Minor changes were made in phraseology particularly with respect to omission of provision covered by rule 5(a) of Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.
AMENDMENTS
1951-Act Jan. 10, 1951, allowed F. B. I. personnel to make arrests without a warrant for any offense against the United States committed in their presence.
TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS
Functions of all other officers of Department of Justice and functions of all agencies and employees of such Department, with a few exceptions, transferred to Attorney General, with power vested in him to authorize their performance or performance of any of his functions by any of such officers, agencies, and employees, by Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3173, 64 Stat. 1261, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.
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18 USC 3071: Information for which rewards authorized Text contains those laws in effect on February 9, 2019
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From Title 18-CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDUREPART II-CRIMINAL PROCEDURECHAPTER 204-REWARDS FOR INFORMATION CONCERNING TERRORIST ACTS AND ESPIONAGE
Jump To: Source CreditAmendmentsShort TitleMiscellaneous
§3071. Information for which rewards authorized
(a) With respect to acts of terrorism primarily within the territorial jurisdiction of the United States, the Attorney General may reward any individual who furnishes information-
(1) leading to the arrest or conviction, in any country, of any individual or individuals for the commission of an act of terrorism against a United States person or United States property; or
(2) leading to the arrest or conviction, in any country, of any individual or individuals for conspiring or attempting to commit an act of terrorism against a United States person or property; or
(3) leading to the prevention, frustration, or favorable resolution of an act of terrorism against a United States person or property.
(b) With respect to acts of espionage involving or directed at the United States, the Attorney General may reward any individual who furnishes information-
(1) leading to the arrest or conviction, in any country, of any individual or individuals for commission of an act of espionage against the United States;
(2) leading to the arrest or conviction, in any country, of any individual or individuals for conspiring or attempting to commit an act of espionage against the United States; or
(3) leading to the prevention or frustration of an act of espionage against the United States.
(Added Pub. L. 98–533, title I, §101(a), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2706 ; amended Pub. L. 103–359, title VIII, §803(a), Oct. 14, 1994, 108 Stat. 3438 .)
AMENDMENTS
1994-Pub. L. 103–359 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).
SHORT TITLE
Pub. L. 98–533, §1, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2706 , provided that: "This Act [enacting this chapter and section 2708 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, amending sections 2669, 2678 and 2704 of Title 22, enacting provisions set out as a note under section 5928 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees and amending provisions set out as a note under section 2651 of Title 22] may be cited as the '1984 Act to Combat International Terrorism'."
ATTORNEY GENERAL'S AUTHORITY TO PAY REWARDS TO COMBAT TERRORISM
Pub. L. 107–56, title V, §501, Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 363 , which provided that funds available to Attorney General could be used for payment of rewards to combat terrorism and defend Nation against terrorist acts, in accordance with procedures and regulations established or issued by Attorney General, and set forth conditions in making such rewards, was repealed by Pub. L. 107–273, div. A, title III, §301(c)(1), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1781 .
USCODE.HOUSE.GOV.STATEVIEWER.HTM-------------------------------------------
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18 USC 3072: Determination of entitlement; maximum amount; Presidential approval; conclusiveness Text contains those laws in effect on February 9, 2019
From Title 18-CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDUREPART II-CRIMINAL PROCEDURECHAPTER 204-REWARDS FOR INFORMATION CONCERNING TERRORIST ACTS AND ESPIONAGE
Jump To: Source CreditAmendments
§3072. Determination of entitlement; maximum amount; Presidential approval; conclusiveness
The Attorney General shall determine whether an individual furnishing information described in section 3071 is entitled to a reward and the amount to be paid.
(Added Pub. L. 98–533, title I, §101(a), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2707 ; amended Pub. L. 107–273, div. A, title III, §301(c)(2), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1781 .)
AMENDMENTS
2002-Pub. L. 107–273, which directed amendment of section 3072 of chapter 203, was executed to this section, which is in chapter 204, by striking out at end "A reward under this section may be in an amount not to exceed $500,000. A reward of $100,000 or more may not be made without the approval of the President or the Attorney General personally. A determination made by the Attorney General or the President under this chapter shall be final and conclusive, and no court shall have power or jurisdiction to review it."
USCODE.HOUSE.GOV.STATEVIEWER.HTM-------------------------------------------
terrorism combat act 1984
PUBLIC LAW 98-533—OCT 19 1984 98 STAT (18 USC 3072) AND 1984ACT TO COMBAT INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM
OCT 19, 1984 LEGISLATIVE HR 6311 (S 3037) 18 USC 3071 NOTE AND (CHAPTER 203) CONGRESSIONAL RECORD VOLUME 130 /1984
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<< Previous TITLE 18 / PART II / CHAPTER 203 / § 3052 Next >> [Print] [Print selection] [Close]Help 18 USC 3052: Powers of Federal Bureau of Investigation Text contains those laws in effect on February 9, 2019 From Title 18-CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDUREPART II-CRIMINAL PROCEDURECHAPTER 203-ARREST AND COMMITMENT Jump To: Source CreditAmendments §3052. Powers of Federal Bureau of Investigation The Director, Associate Director, Assistant to the Director, Assistant Directors, inspectors, and agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation of the Department of Justice may carry firearms, serve warrants and subpoenas issued under the authority of the United States and make arrests without warrant for any offense against the United States committed in their presence, or for any felony cognizable under the laws of the United States if they have reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing such felony. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 817 ; Jan. 10, 1951, ch. 1221, §1, 64 Stat. 1239 .) HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES Based on section 300a of title 5, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees (June 18, 1934, ch. 595, 48 Stat. 1008 ; Mar. 22, 1935, ch. 39, title II, 49 Stat. 77 ). Language relating to seizures under warrant is in section 3107 of this title. Minor changes were made in phraseology particularly with respect to omission of provision covered by rule 5(a) of Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure. AMENDMENTS 1951-Act Jan. 10, 1951, allowed F. B. I. personnel to make arrests without a warrant for any offense against the United States committed in their presence. TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS Functions of all other officers of Department of Justice and functions of all agencies and employees of such Department, with a few exceptions, transferred to Attorney General, with power vested in him to authorize their performance or performance of any of his functions by any of such officers, agencies, and employees, by Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3173, 64 Stat. 1261, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. << Previous TITLE 18 / PART II / CHAPTER 204 / § 3071 Next >> [Print] [Print selection] [Close]Help 18 USC 3071: Information for which rewards authorized Text contains those laws in effect on February 9, 2019 From Title 18-CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDUREPART II-CRIMINAL PROCEDURECHAPTER 204-REWARDS FOR INFORMATION CONCERNING TERRORIST ACTS AND ESPIONAGE Jump To: Source CreditAmendmentsShort TitleMiscellaneous §3071. Information for which rewards authorized (a) With respect to acts of terrorism primarily within the territorial jurisdiction of the United States, the Attorney General may reward any individual who furnishes information- (1) leading to the arrest or conviction, in any country, of any individual or individuals for the commission of an act of terrorism against a United States person or United States property; or (2) leading to the arrest or conviction, in any country, of any individual or individuals for conspiring or attempting to commit an act of terrorism against a United States person or property; or (3) leading to the prevention, frustration, or favorable resolution of an act of terrorism against a United States person or property. (b) With respect to acts of espionage involving or directed at the United States, the Attorney General may reward any individual who furnishes information- (1) leading to the arrest or conviction, in any country, of any individual or individuals for commission of an act of espionage against the United States; (2) leading to the arrest or conviction, in any country, of any individual or individuals for conspiring or attempting to commit an act of espionage against the United States; or (3) leading to the prevention or frustration of an act of espionage against the United States. (Added Pub. L. 98–533, title I, §101(a), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2706 ; amended Pub. L. 103–359, title VIII, §803(a), Oct. 14, 1994, 108 Stat. 3438 .) AMENDMENTS 1994-Pub. L. 103–359 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b). SHORT TITLE Pub. L. 98–533, §1, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2706 , provided that: "This Act [enacting this chapter and section 2708 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, amending sections 2669, 2678 and 2704 of Title 22, enacting provisions set out as a note under section 5928 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees and amending provisions set out as a note under section 2651 of Title 22] may be cited as the '1984 Act to Combat International Terrorism'." ATTORNEY GENERAL'S AUTHORITY TO PAY REWARDS TO COMBAT TERRORISM Pub. L. 107–56, title V, §501, Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 363 , which provided that funds available to Attorney General could be used for payment of rewards to combat terrorism and defend Nation against terrorist acts, in accordance with procedures and regulations established or issued by Attorney General, and set forth conditions in making such rewards, was repealed by Pub. L. 107–273, div. A, title III, §301(c)(1), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1781 . USCODE.HOUSE.GOV.STATEVIEWER.HTM---------------------------------------------------------------------- << Previous TITLE 18 / PART II / CHAPTER 204 / § 3072 Next >> [Print] [Print selection] [Close]Help 18 USC 3072: Determination of entitlement; maximum amount; Presidential approval; conclusiveness Text contains those laws in effect on February 9, 2019 From Title 18-CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDUREPART II-CRIMINAL PROCEDURECHAPTER 204-REWARDS FOR INFORMATION CONCERNING TERRORIST ACTS AND ESPIONAGE Jump To: Source CreditAmendments §3072. Determination of entitlement; maximum amount; Presidential approval; conclusiveness The Attorney General shall determine whether an individual furnishing information described in section 3071 is entitled to a reward and the amount to be paid. (Added Pub. L. 98–533, title I, §101(a), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2707 ; amended Pub. L. 107–273, div. A, title III, §301(c)(2), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1781 .) AMENDMENTS 2002-Pub. L. 107–273, which directed amendment of section 3072 of chapter 203, was executed to this section, which is in chapter 204, by striking out at end "A reward under this section may be in an amount not to exceed $500,000. A reward of $100,000 or more may not be made without the approval of the President or the Attorney General personally. A determination made by the Attorney General or the President under this chapter shall be final and conclusive, and no court shall have power or jurisdiction to review it." USCODE.HOUSE.GOV.STATEVIEWER.HTM--------------------------------------------------------- PUBLIC LAW 98-533—OCT 19 1984 98 STAT (18 USC 3072) AND 1984ACT TO COMBAT INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM OCT 19, 1984 LEGISLATIVE HR 6311 (S 3037) 18 USC 3071 NOTE AND (CHAPTER 203) CONGRESS
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