Erethism
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(Redirected from Mad hatter disease)
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Mercury poisoning, chronic (neurological symptomatology)
Elemental mercury
Specialty
Medical toxicology
Erethism, also known as erethism mercurialis, mad hatter disease, or mad hatter syndrome, is a neurological disorder which affects the whole central nervous system, as well as a symptom complex derived from mercury poisoning. Erethism is characterized by behavioral changes such as irritability, low self-confidence, depression, apathy, shyness[1][2] and timidity, and in some extreme cases with prolonged exposure to mercury vapors, delirium, personality changes and memory loss. People with erethism often have difficulty with social interactions. Associated physical problems may include a decrease in physical strength, "headaches, general pain, and tremors after exposure to metallic mercury"[3] as well as an irregular heartbeat.
Mercury is an element that is found worldwide in soil, rocks, and water. People who get erethism are often exposed to mercury through their jobs. Higher risk jobs include construction, industrial work, and working in factories. Some elemental and chemical forms of mercury (vapor, methylmercury, inorganic mercury) are more toxic than other forms. The human fetus and medically compromised people (for example, patients with lung or kidney problems) are the most susceptible to the toxic effects of mercury.[4]
Mercury poisoning can also occur outside of occupational exposures including in the home. Inhalation of mercury vapor may stem from cultural and religious rituals where mercury is sprinkled on the floor of a home or car, burned in a candle, or mixed with perfume. Due to widespread use and popular concern, the risk of has been exhaustively investigated. It has conclusively been shown to be safe.[5]
Historically, this was common among old England felt-hatmakers who had long-term exposure to vapors from the mercury they used to stabilize the wool in a process called felting, where hair was cut from a pelt of an animal such as a rabbit. The industrial workers were exposed to the mercury vapors, giving rise to the expression "mad as a hatter".[6] Some believe that the character the Mad Hatter in Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland is an example of someone suffering from erethism, but the origin of this account is unclear. The character was almost certainly based on Theophilus Carter, an eccentric furniture dealer who was well known to Carroll.[7]
Contents
• 1 Signs and symptoms
• 2 History among hatters
o 2.1 Hatters of New Jersey
o 2.2 "Mad as a hatter"
• 3 See also
• 4 References
• 5 External links
Signs and symptoms[edit]
Acute mercury exposure has given rise to psychotic reactions such as delirium, hallucinations, and suicidal tendency. Occupational exposure has resulted in erethism, a as the principal features of a broad-ranging functional disturbance. With continuing exposure, a fine, initially involving the hands and later spreading to the eyelids, lips, and tongue, causing violent muscular spasms in the most severe cases. The tremor is reflected in the handwriting which has a characteristic appearance. In milder cases over a period of years following removal from exposure. Decreased nerve conduction velocity in mercury-exposed workers has been demonstrated. Long-term, low-level exposure has been found to be associated with less pronounced symptoms of erethism, characterized by (WHO, 1976).
The man affected is easily upset and embarrassed, loses all joy in life and lives in constant fear of being dismissed from his job. He has a sense of timidity and may before visitors. Thus, if one stops to watch such a man in a factory, he will sometimes throw down his tools and turn in anger on the intruder, saying he cannot work if watched. Occasionally a man is obliged to give up work because he can no longer take orders without losing his temper or, if he is a foreman, because he has no patience with men under him. depression,
The most characteristic symptom, though it is seldom the first to appear, is. It is neither as fine nor as regular as that. It may be interrupted every few minutes by coarse jerky movements. It usually begins in the fingers, but the eyelids, lips and tongue are affected early. As it progresses it passes to the arms and legs, so that it becomes very difficult for a man to walk about the workshop, and he may have to be guided to his bench. At this stage the condition is so obvious that it is known to the layman as "hatter's shakes."
Buckell et al, Chronic Mercury Poisoning (1946)[8]
Effects of chronic occupational exposure to mercury, such as that commonly experienced by affected hatters, include mental confusion, emotional disturbances, and muscular weakness.[9] Severe neurological damage and kidney damage can also occur.[10] Neurological effects include Korsakoff's dementia and erethism (the set of neurological symptoms characteristically associated with mercury poisoning). Signs and symptoms can include red fingers, red toes, red cheeks, sweating, loss of hearing, bleeding from the ears and mouth, loss of appendages such as teeth, hair, and nails, lack of coordination, poor memory, shyness, insomnia, nervousness, tremors, and dizziness.[10] A survey of exposed U.S. hatters revealed predominantly neurological symptomatology, including intention tremor.[8] After chronic exposure to the mercury vapours, hatters tended to develop characteristic psychological traits, such as pathological shyness and marked irritability (box).[11] Such manifestations among hatters prompted several popular names for erethism, including "mad hatter disease",[9] "mad hatter syndrome",[12][13] "hatter's shakes" and "Danbury shakes".
History among hatters[edit]
Some of the steps in the manufacture of felt hats are illustrated in this image from 1858.
A man working in hat manufacture with no protective equipment, putting him at risk for mercury poisoning
Especially in the 19th century, inorganic mercury in the form of mercuric nitrate was commonly used in the production of felt for hats.[14] During a process called carroting, in which furs from small animals such as rabbits, hares or beavers were separated from their skins and matted together, an orange-colored solution containing mercuric nitrate was used as a smoothing agent. The resulting felt was then repeatedly shaped into large cones, shrunk in boiling water and dried.[11] In treated felts, a slow reaction released volatile free mercury.[15] Hatters (or milliners) who came into contact with vapours from the impregnated felt often worked in confined areas.[10]
Use of mercury in hatmaking is thought to have been adopted by the Huguenots in 17th-century France,[11][16] at a time when the dangers of mercury exposure were already known. This process was initially kept a trade secret in France, where hatmaking rapidly became a hazardous occupation. At the end of the 17th century the Huguenots carried the secret to England, following the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. During the Victorian era the hatters' malaise became proverbial, as reflected in popular expressions like "mad as a hatter" (see below) and "the hatters' shakes".[11][16][17]
The first description of symptoms of mercury poisoning among hatters appears to have been made in St Petersburg, Russia, in 1829.[8] In the United States, a thorough occupational description of mercury poisoning among New Jersey hatters was published locally by Addison Freeman in 1860.[18][19] Adolph Kussmaul's definitive clinical description of mercury poisoning published in 1861 contained only passing references to hatmakers, including a case originally reported in 1845 of a 15-year-old Parisian girl, the severity of whose tremors following two years of carroting prompted opium treatment.[18] In Britain, the toxicologist Alfred Swaine Taylor reported the disease in a hatmaker in 1864.[18]
In 1869, the French Academy of Medicine demonstrated the health hazards posed to hatmakers. Alternatives to mercury use in hatmaking became available by 1874. In the United States, a hydrochloride-based process was patented in 1888 to obviate the use of mercury, but was ignored.[20]
In 1898, legislation was passed in France to protect hatmakers from the risks of mercury exposure. By the turn of the 20th century, mercury poisoning among British hatters had become a rarity.[17][21]
Picture postcard of a hat factory in Danbury (postmarked 1911)
In the United States, the mercury-based process continued to be adopted until as late as 1941, when it was abandoned mainly due to the wartime need for the heavy metal in the manufacture of detonators.[18][20] Thus, for much of the 20th century mercury poisoning remained common in the U.S. hatmaking industries, including those located in Danbury, Connecticut (giving rise to the expression the "Danbury shakes").[8][17]
Another 20th-century cohort of affected hatmakers has been studied in Tuscany, Italy.[22][23]
Hatters of New Jersey[edit]
The experience of hatmakers in New Jersey is well documented and has been reviewed by Richard Wedeen.[18] In 1860, at a time when the hatmaking industry in towns such as Newark, Orange and Bloomfield was growing rapidly, a physician from Orange called J. Addison Freeman published an article titled "Mercurial Disease Among Hatters" in the Transactions of the Medical Society of New Jersey. This groundbreaking paper provided a clinical account of the effects of chronic mercury poisoning among the workforce, coupled with an occupational description of the use of mercuric nitrate during carroting and inhalation of mercury vapour later in the process (during finishing, forming and sizing). Freeman concluded that "A proper regard for the health of this class of citizens demands that mercury should not be used so extensively in the manufacture of hats, and that if its use is essential, that the hat finishers' room should be large, with a high ceiling, and well ventilated."[19] Freeman's call for prevention went unheeded.
In 1878, an inspection of 25 firms around Newark conducted by Dr L. Dennis on behalf of the Essex County Medical Society revealed "mercurial disease" in 25% of 1,589 hatters. Dennis recognized that this prevalence figure was probably an underestimate, given the workers' fear of being fired if they admitted to being diseased. Although Dennis did recommend the use of fans in the workplace he attributed most of the hatters' health problems to alcohol abuse (thus using the stigma of drunkenness in a mainly immigrant workforce to justify the unsanitary working conditions provided by employers).[18][24]
The surprise is that men can be induced to work at all in such death producing enclosures. It is hard to believe that men of ordinary intelligence could be so indifferent to the ordinary laws of health... It does not seem to have occurred to them that all the efforts to keep up wages... [are] largely offset by the impairment of their health, due to neglect of proper hygienic regulations of their workshops... And when the fact of the workmen in the sizing room, who stand in water, was mentioned, and the simple and inexpensive means by which it could be largely avoided was spoken of, the reply was that it would cost money and hat manufacturers did not care to expend money for such purposes, if they could avoid it.
Bishop, Annual Report of the Bureau of Statistics of Labor and Industries of New Jersey (1890)[25]
Some voluntary reductions in mercury exposure were implemented after Lawrence T. Fell, a former journeyman hatter from Orange who had become a successful manufacturer, was appointed Inspector of Factories in 1883. In the late nineteenth century, a pressing health issue among hatters was tuberculosis. This deadly communicable disease was rife in the extremely unhygienic wet and steamy enclosed spaces in which the hatters were expected to work (in its annual report for 1889, the New Jersey Bureau of Labor and Industries expressed incredulity at the conditions—see box). Two-thirds of the recorded deaths of hatters in Newark and Orange between 1873 and 1876 were caused by pulmonary disease, most often in men under 30 years of age, and elevated death rates from tuberculosis persisted into the twentieth century. Consequently, public health campaigns to prevent tuberculosis spreading from the hatters into the wider community tended to eclipse the issue of mercury poisoning. For instance, in 1886 J. W. Stickler, working on behalf of the New Jersey Board of Health, promoted prevention of tuberculosis among hatters, but deemed mercurialism "uncommon", despite having reported tremors in 15–50% of the workers he had surveyed.[18][26]
While hatters seemed to regard the shakes as an inevitable price to pay for their work rather than a readily preventable disease, their employers professed ignorance of the problem. In a 1901 survey of 11 employers of over a thousand hatters in Newark and Orange, the head of the Bureau of Statistics of New Jersey, William Stainsby, found a lack of awareness of any disease peculiar to hatters apart from tuberculosis and rheumatism (though one employer remarked that "work at the trade develops an inordinate craving for strong drink").[18][27]
By 1934 the U.S. Public Health Service estimated that 80% of American felt makers had mercurial tremors. Nevertheless, trade union campaigns (led by the United States Hat Finishers Association, originally formed in 1854) never addressed the issue and, unlike in France, no relevant legislation was ever adopted in the United States. Instead, it seems to have been the need for mercury in the war effort that eventually brought to an end the use of mercuric nitrate in U.S. hatmaking; in a meeting convened by the U.S. Public Health Service in 1941, the manufacturers voluntarily agreed to adopt a readily available alternative process using hydrogen peroxide.[18]
"Mad as a hatter"[edit]
While the name of Lewis Carroll's Mad Hatter may contain an allusion to the hatters' syndrome, the character itself appears to have been based on an eccentric furniture dealer.
Main article: Mad as a hatter
Although the expression "mad as a hatter" was associated with the syndrome,[28] the origin of the phrase is uncertain.
Lewis Carroll's iconic Mad Hatter character in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland displays markedly eccentric behavior, which includes taking a bite out of a teacup.[29] Carroll would have been familiar with the phenomenon of dementia among hatters, but the literary character is thought to be directly inspired by Theophilus Carter, an eccentric furniture dealer who did not show signs of mercury poisoning.[11]
The actor Johnny Depp has said of his portrayal of a carrot-orange haired Mad Hatter in Tim Burton's 2010 film, Alice in Wonderland that the character "was poisoned ... and it was coming out through his hair, through his fingernails and eyes".[30]
See also[edit]
• Danbury Hatters' case
• Minamata disease
References[edit]
1. ^ WHO (1976) Environmental Health Criteria 1: Mercury, Geneva, World Health Organization, 131 pp.
2. ^ WHO. Inorganic mercury. Environmental Health Criteria 118. World Health Organization, Geneva, 1991.
3. ^ Marcília de Araújo Medrado Faria (February 2003). "Mercuralismo metálico crônico ocupacional: Chronic occupational metallic mercurialism". Revista de Saúde Pública. 37: 116–127. doi:10.1590/S0034-89102003000100017. Retrieved 2012-03-19.
4. ^ Medicine Health. "Mercury poisoning." Emedicine Health. N.p., 23 Apr. 2010. Web. 23 Apr
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information fastest way to find go under google and wiki also
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i added some information i found under google here it is to the mercury poison issue
Alternative medicine
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Fringe medicine)
Jump to navigationJump to search
Alternative medicine
AM, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), complementary medicine, heterodox medicine, integrative medicine (IM), complementary and integrative medicine (CIM), new-age medicine, pseudomedicine, unconventional medicine, unorthodox medicine
Alternative therapies often make bombastic claims, and frequently include anecdotes from healthy-looking individuals claiming successful treatment.
Claims Alternatives to reality-based medical treatments
Toxic heavy metal
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Erethism
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Mad hatter disease)
Jump to navigationJump to search
Mercury poisoning, chronic (neurological symptomatology)
Elemental mercury
Specialty
Medical toxicology
Erethism, also known as erethism mercurialis, mad hatter disease, or mad hatter syndrome, is a neurological disorder which affects the whole central nervous system, as well as a symptom complex derived from mercury poisoning. Erethism is characterized by behavioral changes such as irritability, low self-confidence, depression, apathy, shyness[1][2] and timidity, and in some extreme cases with prolonged exposure to mercury vapors, delirium, personality changes and memory loss. People with erethism often have difficulty with social interactions. Associated physical problems may include a decrease in physical strength, "headaches, general pain, and tremors after exposure to metallic mercury"[3] as well as an irregular heartbeat.
The man affected is easily upset and embarrassed, loses all joy in life and lives in constant fear of being dismissed from his job. He has a sense of timidity and may lose self control before visitors. Thus, if one stops to watch such a man in a factory, he will sometimes throw down his tools and turn in anger on the intruder, saying he cannot work if watched. Occasionally a man is obliged to give up work because he can no longer take orders without losing his temper or, if he is a foreman, because he has no patience with men under him. Drowsiness, depression, loss of memory and insomnia may occur, but hallucinations, delusions and mania are rare.
The most characteristic symptom, though it is seldom the first to appear, is mercurial tremor. It is neither as fine nor as regular as that of hyperthyroidism. It may be interrupted every few minutes by coarse jerky movements. It usually begins in the fingers, but the eyelids, lips and tongue are affected early. As it progresses it passes to the arms and legs, so that it becomes very difficult for a man to walk about the workshop, and he may have to be guided to his bench. At this stage the condition is so obvious that it is known to the layman as "hatter's shakes."
___________________________________________________________________
Buckell et al, Chronic Mercury Poisoning (1946
er·e·thism
/ˈerəˌTHizəm/
noun
noun: erethism
1. 1.
excessive sensitivity or rapid reaction to stimulation of a part of the body, especially the sexual organs.
2. 2.
a state of abnormal mental excitement or irritation.
Origin
early 19th century: from French éréthisme, from Greek erethismos, from erethizein ‘irritate’.
Translate erethism to
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Erethism - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erethism
1. Cached
2. Similar
Erethism, also known as erethism mercurialis, mad hatter disease, or mad hatter syndrome, is a neurological disorder which affects the whole central nervous system, as well as a symptom complex derived from mercury poisoning. ... People who get erethism are often exposed to mercury through their jobs.
Number 4------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Alternative medicine
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Fringe medicine)
Jump to navigationJump to search
Alternative medicine
AM, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), complementary medicine, heterodox medicine, integrative medicine (IM), complementary and integrative medicine (CIM), new-age medicine, pseudomedicine, unconventional medicine, unorthodox medicine
Alternative therapies often make bombastic claims, and frequently include anecdotes from healthy-looking individuals claiming successful treatment.
Claims Alternatives to reality-based medical treatments
Toxic heavy metal
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Erethism
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Mad hatter disease)
Jump to navigationJump to search
Mercury poisoning, chronic (neurological symptomatology)
Elemental mercury
Specialty
Medical toxicology
Erethism, also known as erethism mercurialis, mad hatter disease, or mad hatter syndrome, is a neurological disorder which affects the whole central nervous system, as well as a symptom complex derived from mercury poisoning. Erethism is characterized by behavioral changes such as irritability, low self-confidence, depression, apathy, shyness[1][2] and timidity, and in some extreme cases with prolonged exposure to mercury vapors, delirium, personality changes and memory loss. People with erethism often have difficulty with social interactions. Associated physical problems may include a decrease in physical strength, "headaches, general pain, and tremors after exposure to metallic mercury"[3] as well as an irregular heartbeat.
The man affected is easily upset and embarrassed, loses all joy in life and lives in constant fear of being dismissed from his job. He has a sense of timidity and may lose self control before visitors. Thus, if one stops to watch such a man in a factory, he will sometimes throw down his tools and turn in anger on the intruder, saying he cannot work if watched. Occasionally a man is obliged to give up work because he can no longer take orders without losing his temper or, if he is a foreman, because he has no patience with men under him. Drowsiness, depression, loss of memory and insomnia may occur, but hallucinations, delusions and mania are rare.
The most characteristic symptom, though it is seldom the first to appear, is mercurial tremor. It is neither as fine nor as regular as that of hyperthyroidism. It may be interrupted every few minutes by coarse jerky movements. It usually begins in the fingers, but the eyelids, lips and tongue are affected early. As it progresses it passes to the arms and legs, so that it becomes very difficult for a man to walk about the workshop, and he may have to be guided to his bench. At this stage the condition is so obvious that it is known to the layman as "hatter's shakes."
Buckell et al, Chronic Mercury Poisoning (1946
from k e sackett32463 hope this info helps ya all out there hope you all find it educatioal
april 2019

number 5-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Alternative medicine
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Fringe medicine)
Jump to navigationJump to search
Alternative medicine
AM, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), complementary medicine, heterodox medicine, integrative medicine (IM), complementary and integrative medicine (CIM), new-age medicine, pseudomedicine, unconventional medicine, unorthodox medicine
Alternative therapies often make bombastic claims, and frequently include anecdotes from healthy-looking individuals claiming successful treatment.
Claims Alternatives to reality-based medical treatments

Number 6 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
scorbutic
relating to chronic vitamin C deficiency
Illustrated Dictionary of Podiatry and Foot Science by Jean
scorbutic
/scor·bu·tic/ (skor-bu´tik) pertaining to or affected with scurvy.
. scorbutic - of or relating to or having or resembling scurvy; "scorbutic symptoms"
Scorbutic | definition of scorbutic by Medical dictionary
https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/scorbutic
TO THE GENTLEMEN THIS LOTION is an EFFECTUAL, REMEDY for all SCORBUTIC and HERPETIC eruptions of the FACE and SKIN, from the most trivial to the most DISFIGURING and INVETERATE; from the smallest PIMPLE or TETTER to the most universally SPREADING Eruptions or Ulcerations.
antiscorbutic
adjective
an·ti·scor·bu·tic | \ ˌan-tē-skȯr-ˈbyü-tik , ˌan-ˌtī-\
Definition of antiscorbutic
: counteracting scurvy the antiscorbutic vitamin is vitamin C
an·ti·scor·bu·tic
/ˌan(t)ēˌskôrˈbyo͞odik,ˌanˌtīˌskôrˈbyo͞odik/
MEDICINE
adjective
adjective: antiscorbutic
1. 1.
(chiefly of a drug) having the effect of preventing or curing scurvy.
noun
noun: antiscorbutic; plural noun: antiscorbutics
1. 1.
an antiscorbutic food or drug.
Definition of 'antiscorbutic'
American: antiscorbuticEnglish: antiscorbuticTrends
Word Frequency
antiscorbutic in American
(ˌæntaɪskɔrˈbjutɪk ; ˌæntiskɔrˈbjutɪk ; ˌæntɪskɔrˈbjutɪk )
adjective
1.
that cures or prevents scurvy
noun
2.
a remedy or preventive for scurvy, as vitamin C
antiscorbutic in British
(ˌæntɪskɔːˈbjuːtɪk )
adjective
1.
preventing or curing scurvy
antiscorbutic foods
noun
2.
an antiscorbutic remedy or agent
Collins English Dictionary. Copyright © HarperCollins Publishers
Noun[edit]
antiscorbutic (plural antiscorbutics)
1. (pharmacology) A medicine that prevents or cures scurvy.
Translations[edit]
±show ▼a medicine that prevents or cures scurvy
number 6------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
raphania
Jump to navigation Jump to search
English[edit]
Etymology[edit]
Raphanus +‎ -ia
Noun[edit]
raphania (uncountable)
1. Poisoning by ingestion of seeds of the wild radish, Raphanus raphanistrum.
Categories:
• English words suffixed with -ia
• English lemmas
• English nouns
• English uncountable nouns
Navigation menu
raphania
NOUN
Medicine
historical
• A disease occurring in epidemics and characterized by fever, delirium, and seizures or muscle spasms, originally attributed to the contamination of grain with seeds of the wild radish, Raphanus raphanistrum.
Origin
Late 18th century. From post-classical Latin raphania from classical Latin raphanus + -ia.
Pronunciation
raphania
/rəˈfeɪnɪə/
raphania
Also found in: Dictionary, Encyclopedia.
ra·pha·ni·a
(ră-fā'nē-ă),
A spasmodic disease supposed to be due to poisoning by the seeds of Rhaphanus rhaphanistrum, the wild radish.
Synonym(s): rhaphania
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012
raphania
, rhaphania (ră-fān′ē-ă) [Gr. rhaphanos, radish]
A spasmodic disease caused by eating seeds of the wild radish; allied to ergotism.
Medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and Partners
Raphania
raf-ā′ni-a, n. ergotism, a disease occurring in two forms, a spasmodic and a gangrenous, due to the use of rye, wheat, rice, &c., in which a poisonous fungus has developed.—n. Raph′anus, a genus of Cruciferæ, the radish family.
Archive
Word of the Week (185): RAPHANIA (probability 23021), by David Sutton
RAPHANIA is a form of ergotism, attributed by Linnaeus to the eating of wild radish. The current version of Zyzzyva has a spectacular misunderstanding on this one, defining it as 'egotism (self-conceit)'. No, no, Michael, eRgotism. ERGOT is a disease of grasses such as rye, caused by a fungus, and ergotism is thought to have been responsible for some of the outbreaks of dancing mania in the Middle Ages.
We're probably safe from RAPHANIA now, the consumption of wild radish having declined, but of course there are still plenty of diseases caused by the ingestion of wrong things, or the lack of ingestion of right things. PELLAGRA, for example, is caused by a deficiency of nicotinic acid, which may be associated with a maize diet, and one suffering from pellagra may be called a PELLAGRIN. Another name for pellagra is MAIDISM, from the word maize.
BERIBERI is caused by a lack of thiamin, while KWASHIORKOR, which, let's face it, is not the most useful of words for the Scrabble player, is caused by a lack of protein.
Watch yourself near lead if you don't want to become SATURNIC (affected by lead poisoning). Too much selenium in the diet will give you SELENOSIS; too much iron, SIDEROSIS. But don't be too cautious in your diet lest you suffer from MARASMUS (wasting away) and become MARASMIC. And the other two anagrams of MARASMIC are?
1. Convulsive disease
2. Acute pain
3. Given as a diuretic in calculous affections juice made in into syrup exhibited to relieve hoarseness radishes having long been celebrated as anti scorbutics
4. Raphanus marinus cochlearia armoracia-raphanistrum raphania rusticanus cochlearia armoracia
5.
Number 7----------DEFINITIONS-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
trition.
POLYURESIS, Diabetes.
POLYURIA, Diabetes.
POLYU'RICUS, from moxvc, ‘much,” and
ovgor, ‘urine.” Sauvages calls—Ischuria poly
urica—a kind of ischuria, caused by accumula
tion of urine in the bladder.
POMA, Drink—p. Chinensia, see Citrus
POLYNEURON, Plantago.
POLYOPSIA, Polyopy, from to Avc, ‘much,”
and outc., “sight.’ Vision is so called, when
multiple.
POLYOPY, Polyopsia.
POLYOREX'IA, from rozwe, ‘much,” and
ops:ur, “appetite.” Excessive appetite or hunger.
A genus in the gastroses of M. Alibert.
POLYPERIA, from rolvº, “much,” and ºrn
00;, ‘mutilated.” Congenital misconstruction
of various parts or organs.—Good.
POLYPHA'GIA, Multivoran'tia, from toxvc,
“much,” and paya', ‘ I eat.’ Voracity. Faculty
of digesting many kinds of food. See Bouli
Inla.
POLYPHARMACI’A, Polypharm'acy; from
.
POLYPORUS OFFICINALIS, Boletus la
ricis.
POLY POSIA,
“much,” and roots, “drink.”
desire for drink. Polydipsia.
__________________________________________________________________________
POL'YPUS, Pseudometamorpho's is polypo'
POLIUM CRETICUM 684 POLYGONUM AVICULARE
POLIUM CRETICUM, Teucrium Creti
cum—p. Montanum, Teucrium capitatum.
POLLEX, An'ticheir, Prom an us, Dºg"itus
primus seu magnus, from pollere, ‘to have
much strength.” (F.) Pouce. The first of the
fingers in size and strength. It is asserted,
that the term poltroon is derived from Pol"lice
truncato;-the Romans who were desirous of
being exempted from military service being
accustomed to cut off the thumb, and thus ren
der themselves unfit to handle arms.
Pollex, see Digitus.
Pollex PEpis, Hallus, Hallur. The great toe.
POLLINCTOR, Pollincter, (L.) In anti
quity, an anointer, dresser, or embalmer of the
dead.
POLLINCTURA, Embalming.
POLLOM, LITTLE, Polygala paucifolia.
POLLUTION, Pollutio, from polluo, “I pro
fane.” The excretion of the seminal liquor or
sperm at other times than during coition.
When occasioned by a voluntary act, it is call
ed simply Pollution or Masturbation; when
excited during sleep, by lascivious dreams, it
takes the name Nocturnal pollution, Ezoneiro'
sis, Oneirogºmos, Oneirogonos, Oneirogonor
rhaea, Ezoneirogmus, Spermatoclemma, Sper
matoclepsis, Spermatolep'sis, Spermatolip'sis,
Gonorrhaea dormientium, G. oneirogonos, G.
vera, G. libidino'sa, Proflu'rium Seminis,
Spermatorrha'a, Paronir'ta salar, Night pol
lution, (F.) Pollution involontaire.
POLLUTION INVOLONTAIRE, Pollu
tion—p. Nocturnal, Pollution—p. Self, Mastur
bation—p, Voluntary, Masturbation.
cuta maculata—p. Vegetable, Upas—p. Wine,
Rhus radicans.
_________________________________________________________________________________
POISONING, Venefic"ium, Torica'tio, In
torica’tio, Entozis'mus, Entoricis'mus, Phar
macei'a, Malefie"lum, (F.) Empoisonnement,
Intorication. The art of applying a poisonous
substance to any of the textures in a dose ca
pable of occasioning more or less serious symp
toms. . Rigorously speaking, therefore, if a phy
sician, in treating any case, employs a delete
rious medicine in a small dose, which, owing to
particular circumstances, produces unpleasant
symptoms, he may be said to have poisoned.
The term is, however, generally restricted to
poisoning by design.
Poisoning has also been used, by a few, to
denote the series of symptoms resembling those
produced by certain poisons, which occasion
ally follow the use of substances that are ge
nerally innoxious. Overloading the stomach
with indigestible food, has, for example, given
occasion to symptoms resembling those pro
duced by a narcotic poison, and the effect has
been termed poisoning.
Secret poisoning was, at one time, practised
as an art. It consisted in administering medi
cines, which should act as slow poisons, and
gradually undermine the strength and life. Its
agency was far from being so extensive as was
imagined.
POISONOUS, Toa'ical, Norius; having
the qualities of a poison,
POISONS, ACRO-NARCOTIC, P. narcotic
from Katrine Elizabeth sackett 32463whitelady(5'3)(5'21/2)
7101 n ih 35 Austin tx apt 214
information under google and cookie and might be fastest way to find by going thru google
date april 18 thurs 2019 time about 7:55pm
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