Article lithium/ lithium poison/ lithium effects electrolyte excretion /application automated techniques assessing psychotropic drug induced side effects /narcissistic personality disorder articles

Lithium and Thyroid Function in Manic-Depressive Psychosis
RONALD R. FIEVE, and STANLEY PLATMAN
Published online: April 01, 2006 | http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/ajp.125.4.527 (link is external)
Abstract
The authors report a possible long-termn side effect of lithium treatment in cases of manic-depressive disease. They examined 19 manic-depressive patients who had been on long-term lithium carbonate therapy and found that six had goiters and four others had evidence of thyroid pathology. Related studies and findings are reported, and possible mechanisms underlying the high incidence of thyroid pathology are discussed.
Article
Lithium Poisoning
MOGENS SCHOU, AMDI AMDISEN, and JENS TRAP-JENSEN
Published online: April 01, 2006 | http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/ajp.125.4.520 (link is external)
Abstract
The increasing use of lithium in the treatment of manic-depressive disorder raises the risk of poisoning, either by mismanagement of treatment or by accident. The authors report on the prodromes, clinical pictures, and outcomes of eight cases of lithium poisoning in Denmark and present their conclusions concerning prevention and therapy.
Overview: narcissistic personality disorder.
Akhtar S, Thomson JA Jr.
Abstract
The authors trace the evolution of narcissistic personality disorder as a nosological entity in a critical survey of the literature, considering and comparing differing theoretical viewpoints regarding the genesis of this disorder. They review its various descriptions, including the one in DSM-III, and develop a composite picture of the syndrome. The disorder consists of characteristic deficits in six broad areas of functioning: 1) self-concept, 2) interpersonal relationships, 3) social adaptation, 4) ethics, standards, and ideals, 5) love and sexuality, and 6) cognitive style. The authors identify guidelines for distinguishing the narcissistic personality from other personality disorders as well as areas needing continued research.
PMID: 7034551 DOI: 10.1176/ajp.139.1.12
Lithium Effects on Electrolyte Excretion
JOE P. TUPIN, GEORGE K. SCHLAGENHAUF, and DANIEL L. CRESON
Published online: April 01, 2006 | http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/ajp.125.4.536 (link is external)
Abstract
Lithium carbonate was administered to normal controls and to manic-depressive patients under carefully controlled conditions. Particular attention was given to diet. The authors found that lithium clearly affects the metabolism of sodium and calcium and, to some extent, magnesium. Minimal affective and behavioral effects of the lithium were noted by the normal controls. There was some suggestion of abnormality in the circadian (24-hour) rhythm of temperature and some other physiological measurements among the manic-depressive group.
Article
The Application of Automated Techniques in Assessing Psychotropic-Drug-Induced Side Effects
J. M. C. HOLDEN, and T. M. ITIL
Published online: April 01, 2006 | http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/ajp.125.4.562 (link is external)
Abstract
In response to the need for standardization of methodology in assessing the side effects of psychotropic drugs, the authors describe a rating scale, structured for computer optical reading, to measure changes in physical and laboratory data. They feel that the method described, used on patients who are on low drug dosages, will provide predictors of possible abnormalities later when higher dosages are used.
Am J Psychiatry. 1982 Jan;139(1):12-20.
Overview: narcissistic personality disorder.
Akhtar S, Thomson JA Jr.
Abstract
The authors trace the evolution of narcissistic personality disorder as a nosological entity in a critical survey of the literature, considering and comparing differing theoretical viewpoints regarding the genesis of this disorder. They review its various descriptions, including the one in DSM-III, and develop a composite picture of the syndrome. The disorder consists of characteristic deficits in six broad areas of functioning: 1) self-concept, 2) interpersonal relationships, 3) social adaptation, 4) ethics, standards, and ideals, 5) love and sexuality, and 6) cognitive style. The authors identify guidelines for distinguishing the narcissistic personality from other personality disorders as well as areas needing continued research.
PMID:
7034551
DOI:
10.1176/ajp.139.1.12
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I. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), once called shell shock or battle fatigue, is a mental health problem that can occur following the direct experience or witnessing of life- threatening events such as military combat, natural disasters, terrorist attacks, serious accidents, or violent personal assaults. PTSD is a medically recognized anxiety disorder that occurs in normal individuals under extremely stressful conditions. Most people who experience a traumatic event will have reactions that may include shock, anger, nervousness, fear, and even guilt. These reactions are common and for most people go away over time. People who suffer from PTSD often relive the experience over and over again through a range of symptoms (e.g., nightmares and uncontrollable thoughts, difficulty sleeping, and feeling detached or estranged from other people), and these symptoms can be severe enough and can last long enough to significantly affect the person’s quality of life and ability to function (Veterans Healthcare Administration, 2011; United States Department of Veteran Affairs, n.d.).
For individuals suffering from PTSD, the area of the brain that processes emotions is also more likely to be triggered by stimuli, regardless of whether the stimulus has anything to do with the original trauma. These biologically based body-changes that occur with PTSD help explain why a veteran might react to noises differently, such as fireworks or a helicopter flying overhead or certain odors, textures, climates, and situations. As a result of these PTSD-related biological changes, the ability to tell the difference between a real threat and a perceived threat can be impaired (National Alliance of Mental Illness [NAMI], 2011).
Signs and Symptoms
Signs and symptoms of PTSD occur most frequently within 3 months of the traumatic experience but can often be delayed for years. The severity and duration of PTSD can vary greatly among people but the symptoms can usually fit into three main categories including:
Reliving (Re-experiencing):
• Reliving the ordeal through thoughts and memories of the trauma.
• Flashbacks, hallucinations, and nightmares.
• Physical reactions to triggers that symbolize or resemble the event (NAMI, 2011).
Avoiding (Feeling numb, Hypoarousal):
• Avoiding people, places, thoughts, or situations that may remind him/her of the trauma.
• Feelings of detachment and isolation from friends and family, as well as a loss of interest in things the person once enjoyed.
• Difficulty thinking about the long-term future. Sometimes this is expressed in an inability to plan for the future or risk-taking because the individual may not see themselves living a full lifespan (NAMI, 2011).
Increased Arousal (Hyperarousal):
• Includes excessive emotions; problems relating to others, including feeling or showing affection; difficulty falling or staying asleep; irritability; outbursts of anger; difficulty concentrating; and being “jumpy” or easily startled.
• The person may also suffer physical symptoms, such as increased blood pressure and heart rate, rapid breathing, muscle tension, nausea, and diarrhea (WebMD, 2012).
Katrine sackett32463 info: internet _________________________________________________________________________
MOOD DISORDER -----------------BIPOLAR

Mood congruence is a type of recall biased mood congruent memory, not to be mistaken with mood-dependent memory, where an individual's current mood or affective state determines the affective association of the memories that are recalled.
What does it mean to be congruent in psychology?
Carl Rogers believed that for a person to achieve self-actualization they must be in a state of congruence. This means that self-actualization occurs when a person's “ideal self” (i.e. who they would like to be) is congruent with their actual behavior (self-image).
What does it mean to be incongruent?
in·con·gru·ent. adjective. The definition of incongruent is not the same, not compatible or out of place. When you take one position on something and then a second later you take a contrary position, this is an example of a situation where your statements would be described as incongruent.
What is Carl Rogers concept of congruence?
Rogers described the concepts of congruence and incongruence as important ideas in his theory. In proposition #6, he refers to the actualizing tendency. At the same time, he recognized the need for positive regard.
What is incongruent communication?
incongruent communication. [inkong′gro̅o̅·ənt] a communication pattern in which the sender gives conflicting messages on verbal and nonverbal levels and the listener does not know which message to accept.
What is a somatic delusion?
The fixed, false belief that one's bodily functioning, sensation, or appearance is grossly abnormal. The somatic delusion has to do with thinking that your body is diseased in some way Sometimes these delusions include things like the idea that one's body is completely infested with parasites (clearly untrue).
hallucinations (experiencing things that are not real) and/or delusions (believing things that are not real).
Incongruent means "conflicting." ------OR----- By contrast, congruent means "in agreement." ---
Incongruent means "conflicting." As such, mood incongruence implies that the symptoms conflict with the person's current mood. Examples include:
• Laughing when your dog dies
• Believing you have super powers despite going through a major depressive episode
In each case, the actions of the person do not match either the situation or emotional state. The delusion of super powers, for example, in no way coincides with themes of powerlessness that are inherent in depression.
By contrast, congruent means "in agreement." In this case, any symptoms, however extreme, are considered mood-congruent when they in agreement with the person's current mood.
examples include: Feeling suicidal when your dog dies Believing you have super powers when you are going through a manic episode However unreasonable the response may be, they nevertheless match the circumstance or emotional state of that person at that moment.
Congruent---means mood demonstrating(acting) and behavior demonstrating(acting) match ---OR---incongruent—means mood demonstrating(act) and behavior demonstrating(acting) don’t match
Erotomanic – Delusion of a special, loving relationship with another person, usually someone famous or of higher standing. (This kind of delusion is sometimes at the root of stalking behavior.) Jealous – Delusion that a sexual partner is being unfaithful. .,MORBID INCLINATION- noxious,vicious,grossly immoral,vicious temper,vicious Gossip,depraved,vicious deception,(profligate - ADJECTIVE wasteful, extravagant,dash,moral hazard- Disregarding accepted rules. Or ignoring societal standards)( To drive away; to overcome.)
Mood disorder ---------------------------------------------------bipolar
What is grandiose delusions?
A delusion of grandeur is the fixed, false belief that one possesses superior qualities such as genius, fame, omnipotence, or wealth. It is most often a symptom of schizophrenia, but can also be a symptom found in psychotic or bipolar disorders, as well as dementia (such as Alzheimer's)(ability level)
What is a delusion in psychology?
A delusion is a belief that is clearly false and that indicates an abnormality in the affected person's content of thought. The false belief is not accounted for by the person's cultural or religious background or his or her level of intelligence 2014)
persecutory delusions are a set of delusional conditions in which the affected persons believes they are being persecuted. Specifically, they have been defined as containing two central elements:[1]
1. The individual thinks that harm is occurring, or is going to occur.
2. The individual thinks that the perceived persecutor has the intention to cause harm.
3. Persecutory – Delusion that the person is being threatened or maltreated.
According to the DSM-IV-TR, persecutory delusions are the most common form of delusions in paranoid schizophrenia, where the person believes "he or she is being tormented, followed, tricked, spied on, or ridiculed."[2] They are also often seen in schizoaffective disorder and, as recognized by DSM-IV-TR, constitute the cardinal feature of the persecutory subtype of delusional disorder, by far the most common. Delusions of persecution may also appear in manic and mixed episodes of bipolar disease, polysubstance abuse, and severe depressive episodes with psychotic features, particularly when associated with bipolar illness.
Contents 4 References
Legal aspects[edit]
When the focus is to remedy some injustice by legal action, they are sometimes called "querulous paranoia".[3]
In cases where reporters of stalking behavior have been judged to be making false reports, a majority of them were judged to be delusional.[4][5]
Treatment of delusions depends upon the underlying cause. It is important for practitioners to differentiate between delusions of grandeur and simple hopes for the future. A person, for example, who wants to be president one day is likely not experiencing a delusion of grandeur
A delusion of grandeur is the false belief in one’s own superiority, greatness, or intelligence.(ability level) People experiencing delusions of grandeur do not just have high self-esteem; instead, they believe in their own greatness and importance even in the face of overwhelming evidence to the contrary. Someone might, for example, believe they are destined to be the leader of the world, despite having no leadership experience and difficulties in interpersonal relationships. Delusions of grandeur are characterized by their persistence. They are not just moments of fantasy or hopes for the future.
A delusion is a false belief that is maintained despite overwhelming evidence to the contrary. Beliefs associated with religion or with widespread social norms within a particular culture are not considered delusions, and beliefs based upon incomplete or incorrect information also do not qualify as delusions.
Mood-congruent delusions are directly related to a person’s current mood. For example, a person with depression may believe everybody hates them, while an individual experiencing a period of mania may believe they are famous. Mood-neutral delusions, on the other hand, are not related to a person’s emotional state.
suggesting falseness or exaggeration in claims --------or------------grandiose
adjective---The definition of grandiose is something that is grand or magnificent or something that is trying to be impressive but is much too large, making it seem pretentious or overdone. An example of something that
would be described as grandiose is an excessively large mansion decorated in an overdone way just to impress the neighbors.
From katrine sackett32463 info: internet
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Pharmaceutical Representative www.pharmrep.com (link is external) | May 2008
Major categories of psychiatric disorders
Anxiety disorder – Recurrent, persistent anxiety inappropriate to real-life
circumstances; undermines the patient’s ability to function at work and
at home.
Mood disorder – A prolonged abnormal emotional state – usually
depression or elation – that affects overall mental health.
Psychotic disorder – Distorted thinking (false perceptions of reality),
delusions and an inability to recognize reality.
Organic mental disorder – Brain dysfunctions that produce psychological
and behavioral symptoms.
Impulse control disorder – Inability to resist the impulse to perform
an act that is harmful to the patient or others.
Disorders fi rst evident in infancy, childhood or adolescence – Include
mental retardation, attention defi cit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and
pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs).
Substance-related disorders – Psychoactive substance-use disorders
result from the physical effects of using psychoactive substances.
Substance-induced disorders include the physical and/or behavioral
conditions that result from substance abuse.
Somatoform disorder – Physical symptoms are related to psychological
sources rather than to physical disease.
Dissociative disorder – A split in a patient’s identity, memory or
consciousness.
Personality disorder – Personality traits that form a syndrome that
results in distress or disability (e.g., paranoid personality).
Sexual disorders – Include paraphilias (unusual sexual practices) and
sexual dysfunctions (disturbance affecting any stage of the sexual act).
30 Pharmaceutical Pharmaceutical Representative www.pharmrep.com (link is external) | May 2008
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Formication
Formication (also known as speed bumps, meth sores, crank bugs): A common symptom in diseases of the spinal cord and peripheral nerves involving the illusion or hallucination (also called delusions of parasitosis –DP for short) that ants, snakes or other insects are creeping on or under the skin causing itching. Formication is associated with psychotic states, drug and alcohol abuse (crystal meth, cocaine, amphetamines, heroine, alcohol), certain prescription medication (Ritalin, Adderall and Lunesta), menopause, allergies, diabetic neuropathy, skin cancer and with herpes zoster (shingles).
Heavy stimulant use causes a rise in body temperature and increased blood flow to the skin (to counteract the hyperthermia). Sweat is produced that contains an enzyme which further increases blood flow. As the sweat evaporates, it removes the protective oils on the skin. This scenario, combined with the toxins released from the skin, also dehydrates the dermal layer creating an itchy sensation on the nerve endings.

Other term for formication

Formication Meth mites, crank sores, speed bumps or bugs are common symptoms Medically known as formication, this condition occurs due to the severe dehydration and chemical imbalance the drug has caused in their body hallucinations of bugs crawling inside of them.. ……... These chemicals can cause toxic reactions in the body and many other serious side effects.
known to cause a rise in body temperature and increased sweating. The sweat that is produced contains an enzyme that increases blood flow to the skin. Additionally, the excess substance in the body is expelled through normal processes such urine and through the skin. When the sweat evaporates, it is acidic from the enzyme. This acidic sweat removes the protective oils which coat the skin. This combined with dehydration cause a crawling sensation on the nerve endings on the skin, leading users to believe that bugs are crawling on them.( prickling, tingling sensation known as "pins and needles".)(burning,wetness,itching,electric shock, and pins and needles) drug-induced formication
the skin, leading users to believe that bugs are crawling on them.( prickling, tingling sensation known as "pins and needles".)(burning,wetness,itching,electric shock, and pins and needles) drug-induced formication

UNDER FORMICATION
addition,--------polypharmacy (simultaneous use of multiple medications) with concomitant side effects and potential drug interactions---------neuropathy, leading to paresthesia, which may be misinterpreted as bites or stings------
, the antidepressant --phenelzine produced both widespread pruritus and the perception of being infested with parasites( Ritalin or Adderall.)
EXTRA----. Since stimulants rapidly accelerate the heart rate while simultaneously constricting blood vessels, making them work harder, they can weaken the cardiovascular system.
From and brochure made by katrine sackett32463 Info: internet and books
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Thought Disorder
By Renée Grinnell
A disturbance in one’s ability to generate a logical sequence of ideas, as indicated by disordered speech and/or writing.
There are different types of thought disorders. A flight of ideas refers to language that may be difficult to understand when it switches quickly from one unrelated idea to other. Circumstantiality refers to language that may be difficult to understand when it is long-winded and convoluted in reaching its goal. Word salad refers to words that are inappropriately strung together resulting in gibberish.
A thought disorder may be a symptom of many different mental disorders, but is most commonly associated with schizophrenia or some related psychotic disorder. A person with a thought disorder is usually someone who is suffering from something that is need of professional mental health help sooner rather than later.
Example: The patient speaks with fluency, but his sentences are a “word salad” of incoherent rambling and made-up words.
APA Reference
Grinnell, R. (2018). Thought Disorder. Psych Central. Retrieved on February 14, 2019, from https://psychcentral.com/encyclopedia/thought-disorder/ (link is external)
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